Wednesday, August 3, 2011

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Plains of Pakistan"

Plain Area

This plain is spread, in the South of Slat Range and in the East of Suleiman Range and Kirthur Mountain which is spread up to the Arabian Sea. This region is irrigated by river Indus, Ravi, Jhelum, Sutleg and Chenab. Hence it is called the indus plain. The point of Mithan Kot all other reivers join Indus. The plain above Mithan Kot is called the upper Indus plain. The upper part of river Indus is made of teh soil brouth by rivers. So it is very fertile. There are a few rainfalls in it. There is a long chain of canals spread in this area which is unique in the world. Due to these effects good crops are produced over here. In this plain some hills are seen near Chiniot and Sangla Hill. These are not so high to obstruct roads and canals for irrigation. In the West of river Jhelum there is a desert of Thai. This is now irrigated by canals coming from Jinriah Barrage. Due to which a large part of Thai has been populated. There are many Doabas in this region, For Example Ban Doab, Singh, Sagar Doab, Neli Bar in district Multan and Sahiwal, Gunji Bar and Kuruta Bar. As soon as we go away teh plain became higher and higher. This raised region plain called Daras. In the north of Daras, the plains of Bannu and Peshawar are very fertile. Good crops are found here due to canals and tube wells. The important crops of its region are wheat, rice, cotton, sugar cane, tobacco and oil seeds.

The Lower Indus Plain

The region in the south of Mizhan Kot to the Arabian Sea is called the lower Indus Plain. It includes the most part of Sindh Province. This plain is very fertile. In the North of sindh many canals have been dug due to which good crops are produced. The people of this region are becoming rich day by day.The central part of sindh has been irrigated by canals to a large extent, but the eastern part is still desert. It is called the desert of Thar many arrangements are being made for teh progress of this region. Near Thatha, rever indus starts making Delta and is divided into many branches which afterwards fall in the Arabian Sea. During rainy season most of its part is flooded with water and bring large destruction.


The south eastern part of Pakistan consists of deserts. This area includes the district of Bahawalpur, Sukkur, khairpur, Sanghar, Mir Pur Khas and Tharparkar. Following are main deserts of Pakistan.

The area which is situated in Bahawalpur is called Cholistan.


This desert is situated in the North West of Balochistan province. Which is called Desert of Kharan. Deserts are unpopulated and barren due to less rainfall.

Coastal Plain

The length of coastal plain of Pakistan is about 700 kilometers which starts from the border of Sindh with an Indian and ends at Pakistan and Iran in the West. The coastal areas of Pakistan are very important due to its geographical situation. Also the possibility of mineral oil in the sea has increased the importance of coastal regions. That is why the government is giving more importance to the progress of these areas.


The area which consists of ridges trough basin plains and dessected plains is known as Plateau.

Pothohar Plateau

In the north of Pothohar Plateau, there are Kala Chitta and Margalla Hills. In the south of Salt Range river Jhelum flows in the east and river Indus in the west. The chain of Salt Range starts from the mountains of Tilla Jogian and Bakrala hills on the bank of river Jhelum. These chains runs for some distance along the river and then in the west after passing through Bannu meet with suleiman mountain. The average height of Salt Range is 700 meters. In district sakasar its height becomes 1,500 meters. This is the reason of pleasant weather over here. Although the mountains of salt range are barren but are full or mineral wealth where the reservoirs of salt, gypsum, stone of calcium and coal are present. The famous Khewra Mine of salt is also here. In the north of Salt range is the plateau of Potwar its height is 300-600 meter. The land here is dry and stony. At certain place cultivation is done. Here the reserves of kersone oil are found. Two important rivers flow here. Among them rivers Swan is the larger one. Its valley is called Swan Valley and its famous for old civilization. The name of the second river is river Hurd. These two rivers flow from East to West and fall in river Indus.

Balochistan Plateau

This plateau is located in Balochistan in the south of coastal Makran range. Siahal range, central makran range Rass range are important. There height gradually increases from 300 meters to 2000 meters. In the north of the plateau of Balochistan is Chaghi Range. The famous Khojak pass is in this range. Toba kakar is in the north east of Balochistan. The average height of this range is 3000 meters. In the north west of Balochistan, there are salt lakes. The famous one is Hamun-e-Mashkhel River Gomal, Zhob and Hingol are important. This plateau is frill of precious metals. There are vast oil reserves here. Sui gas is dug from its southern part which is a great blessing of God and Pakistan largely depends upon it for its progress. Here also lie the reserves of coal, iron and chromites and copper.

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