Sunday, October 16, 2011
اسلام میں جمہوریت کے اصول
اسلام میں جمہوریت کا تصور دنیوی اصولوں سے مختلف ہے۔ اسلامی معاشرہ اس بات پر کامل ایمان رکھتا ہے کہ اس کائنات میں اقتداراعلیٰ اللہ تعالیٰ کے ہاتھ میں ہے اور وہی اس پوری کائنات کا حاکم اعلیٰ ہے۔عوام کے نمائندے صرف ان حدود کے اندر اختیارات استعمال کرسکتے ہیںجو اسلام نے انہیں فراہم کردی ہیں۔ تاہم عوام کو اس امر کی مکمل آزادی ہوتی ہے کہ وہ ریاست کے معاملات چلانے کے لئے اللہ سے ڈرنے والے صالح، متقی اور پرہیزگار افراد کو منتخب کریں۔ اسلامی معاشرے میں حکمرانوں پر عوام کو اس وقت تک اعتماد رہتا ہے جب تک کہ وہ اسلامی قوانین کی پیروی کریں۔ اسی سے اسلام میں جمہوریت کا تصور واضح ہوتا ہے۔ اسلام میں جمہوریت کے اصول درج ذیل ہیں۔
عدل و انصاف
عدل کے لفظی معنی ہیں کہ صحیح چیز کو صحیح جگہ پر رکھنا۔ یہ قانون الٰہی کو اصل اور بنیاد ہے۔زندگی کا کوئی بھی پہلو عدل کے بغیر مکمل نہیں ہوسکتا۔ یہ عدل و انصاف ہی ہے جس کی بناءپر کوئی معاشرہ پرامن اور خوشحال ہوسکتا ہے۔صرف عادلانہ نظام میں ہی ا فرد کے کردار کی تعمیر و تشکیل اور نتیجتاًاجتماعی بہتری ممکن ہے۔قرآن حکیم عدل قائم کرنے پر زور دیتا ہے ۔ قرآن کریم میں ارشاد ہے۔
”عدل قائم کرو۔ یہی تقویٰ سے قریب تر ہے۔“
ایک ایسا معاشرہ جس میں عدل کو فوقیت اور برتری حاصل ہو اس میں ہمیشہ اتحاد و اتفاق، محبت ، خلوص اور امن پایا جاتا ہے۔ قرآن حکیم میں ارشاد ربانی ہے۔
”اے لوگو! جو ایمان لائے ہو۔عدل قائم کرواللہ کی رضا کے لئے شہادت کو قبول کرو خواہ یہ خود تمھارے خلاف ہو، خواہ وہ امیر ہو یا غریب اور لوگوں سے نفرت تمہیں انصاف کرنے سے نہ روکے۔“
اسلام کے عدالتی نظام میں افراد کے بنیادی حقوق کا تحفظ کیا جاتا ہے۔
اسلام انسانوں کے درمیان مساوات کا علم بردار ہے۔ اسلام رنگ و نسل، زبان،و ثقافت اور امارت و غربت سمیت تمام امتیازات و تفریق کی نفی کرتا ہے۔ رسول اکرم صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے حجتہ الوداع کے موقع پر فرمایا۔
” تمام انسان حضرت آدم عہ کی اولاد ہیں ۔کسی عربی کو کسی عجمی پر اور کسی عجمی کو کسی عربی پر، کسی گورے کو کالے پر اور کسی کالے کو کسی گورے پر کوئی فوقیت حاصل نہیں ہے۔“
اسلام میں فوقیت اور برتری کی بنیاد تقویٰ ہے نہ کہ دولت یا اختیار و اقتدار ۔ اسلام میں لوگوں کے درمیان کوئی تفریق نہیں ہے۔کوئی کسی سے برتر نہیں سوائے ان کے جو تقویٰ یعنی پرہیزگاری اور خوف ِخدا اختیار کرتے ہیں۔قانون کی نظر میں تمام انسان برابر ہیں۔ تمام انسانوں کو یکساں قانونی تحفظ حاصل ہے اور انہیں بہتر سماجی مقام حاصل کرنے کے یکساں اور مساوی مواقع حاصل ہیں۔
اخوت کے معنی بھائی چارے کے ہیں۔ قرآن مجید میں ارشاد ہے ”کل مسلم اخوة“ یعنی تمام مسلمان آپس میں بھائی بھائی ہیں۔اخوت کا اصول اسلامی معاشرے کا ایک اہم پہلو ہے۔ بھائی بھائی ہونے کی حیثیت سے وہ ایک دوسرے کے دکھ سکھ اور خوشی و غم میں شریک ہوتے ہیں۔ اخوت اور بھائی چارے کا احساس ، محبت، باہمی تعاون اور قربانی کے جذبات کو ابھارتا اور فروغ دیتا ہے۔ ہمارے پیارے نبی نے فرمایا۔
”ہر مسلمان دوسرے مسلمان کا بھا ئی ہے اور اپنے بھائی کو تکلیف پہنچانے کا ذریعہ نہیں بنتا ہے۔“
ایک اور موقع پر آپ نے فرمایا۔
”پس میں کینہ نہ رکھو۔حسد نہ کرو۔ ایک دوسرے سے منہ نہ پھیرواور سب بھائی بھائی بن جاو۔“
مختصر یہ کہ ایک مسلمان کو اپنے دوسرے مسلمان بھائی سے کسی قسم کی کدورت نہیں رکھنی چاہئے اور نہ ہی حسد کرنا چاہئے۔مسلمان تو مسلمان ہیں اسلام تو غیر مسلموں کے خلاف بھی سازش کرنے اور برُے خیالات رکھنے کی بھی اجازت نہیں دیتا ہے۔
رواداری اور برداشت اسلام کی نظر میں نہایت عظیم نیکیاں ہیں۔ جو انسان کو مشکل و دشواری سے بچاتی ہیں اور دوسروں کے لیے پیار و محبت کا ذریعہ بنتی ہیں۔لوگوں کے درمیان سماجی تعلقات قائم کرنے کا بہترین ذریعہ یہ ہے کہ دوسروں کی غلطیوں کو نظر انداز کیا جائے۔ باہمی جھگڑوں سے بچنے کے لئے رواداری بہترین ذریعہ ہے۔ اس کی وجہ سے اخوت اور امن کا ماحول فروغ پاتا ہے اور انسانی رشتوں میں استحکام آتا ہے ۔ رسول اکرم نے اپنے قول و فعل سے رواداری کا درس دیا ہے ۔ اللہ تعالیٰ نے قران حکیم میں فرمایا ہے۔
”دین میں کوئی جبر نہیں۔“
یہ رواداری کا ایک سنہری اصول ہے۔ اسلامی معاشرے میں غیر مسلموں کے جائز حقوق کا احترام کیا جاتا ہے اور انھیں مکمل تحفظ فراہم کیا جاتا ہے۔ اس لیے ایسے افراد پر نظر رکھنا ضروری ہوتا ہے جو اپنے خیالات اور نظریات کو زبردستی دوسروں پر مسلط کرنا چاہتے ہیں اور دوسروں کے جذبات مجروح کرتے ہیں۔
Thursday, October 13, 2011
نظریے کی اہمیت
نظریے کی اہمیت مندرجہ ذیل وجوہات کی بناء پر واضح ہوتی ہے۔
خیالات کا عکاس
نظریہ افکار و خیالات کا عکاس ہوتا ہے۔یہ معاشرے میں رہن سہن، سوچ، طرز فکر اور باہمی تعلقات کے اصول متعین کرتا ہے۔
قومی اتحاد کا سرچشمہ
نظریہ لوگوں کو ایک پلیٹ فارم پر جمع کرتا ہے اور اتحاد کا سرچشمہ بنتا ہے۔
رضائے الٰہی کا حصول
اسلامی نظریہ انسانوں کو فلاح و بہبود کے لیے جدوجہد پر ابھارتا ہے جس کے نتیجے میںاللہ تعالی راضی ہوتا ہے۔ اور یہ جدوجہد اقوام کے لیے زبردست قوت محرکہ کا کام دیتی ہے۔
درست فیصلے میں مدد
قیادت کے انتخاب کے لئے نظریہ ایک خاص طرح کی بصیرت پیدا کردیتا ہے جسسے درست فیصلے کرنے میں مدد ملتی ہے۔
ثقافت کو برقرار رکھنے میں معاون
نظریے سے آزادی، ثقافت اور رسوم رواج برقرار رکھنے میں مدد ملتی ہے۔ اسلامی نظریہ اُن اسلامی اقدار کا عکاس ہے جن کی رسول اکرم نے تعلیم دی اور عمل کرکے دکھایا۔
Friday, September 2, 2011
سوال: کسی نظریے کے ماخذ کیا ہوتے ہیں؟
نظریے کے معنی اور مفہوم
نظریہ فرانسیسی لفظ آئیڈیولوجی کا ترجمہ ہے۔یہ دو اجزاء”آئیڈیا“ اور ”لوجی“ پر مشتمل ہے۔نظریے کا مفہوم ہے اندازِ فکر اور تصور حیات ۔ نظریہ عام طور پر اُس تہذیبی یا معاشرتی لائحہ عمل کو کہتے ہیں جو کسی قوم کا مشترکہ نصب العین بن جائے۔ نظریے کا لفظ زیادہ وسیع معنوں میں استعمال کیا جاتا ہے۔ اس سے انسانی زندگی کا ایسا نظام وجود میں آتا ہے جس میں اعتقادات، اور زندگی کے مقاصد شامل ہوں۔نظریہ کسی بھی معاشرہ کو ایسی شکل میں لے آتاہے جس میں افراد کے اعتقادات، رسوم و رواج اور مذہبی معاملات مشترکہ ہوتے ہیں۔ دیگر معاشروں کے مقابلے میں اسلامی معاشرہ بالکل منفرد ہے۔ کیونکہ یہ الٰہامی اصول اور نظریات پرقائم ہوتا ہے۔جو قرآن مجید اور سنت نبوی سے حاصل کیے گئے ہیں۔
نظریے کا منبع اور ماخذ
کسی بھی نظریے کی اثر انگیزی کا انحصار افراد کے خلوص، لگن، وفاداری اور وابستگی پر ہوتا ہے۔ اسلامی نظریہ افراد کے ذہنوں پر فطری طریقے سے اثرانداز ہوتا ہے نتیجتاً اسلام کے ابدی اصولوں پر ان کا ایمان پختہ ہوجاتا ہے۔ اسلامی نظریے کا سرچشمہ قرآن مجید اور سنت نبوی ہے۔
قرآن مجید کے احکام اسلام کی بنیادہیں۔ان سے معاشی اور معاشرتی قوانین کے سلسلے میں مفصّل و مکمل رہنمائی حاصل ہوتی ہے۔ جس کی بدولت انفرادی اور اجتماعی سطح پر زندگی خوشگوار، پرُامن اور بامقصد ہوجاتی ہے۔
ہمارے پیارے نبی نے اسلامی احکامات کو اپنے اقوال و افعال سے واضح فرمایا ہے۔ قرآن مجید کی تعلیمات کی مفصّل تشریح سنّت نبوی سے ملتی ہے جو اسلامی اصول و قوانین کا سرچشمہ ہے۔سنّت ایک عربی اصطلاح ہے۔ اس کے لفظی معنی ہیں ”ایسا راستہ جس کی پیروی کی جائے۔“ قرآن مجید اسلامی اصول کے بنیادی خدوخال بیان کرتا ہے۔لیکن ان کی تشریح رسول اکرم کی احادیث سے ملتی ہے۔اسلام کے بنیادی ارکان یعنی نماز، روزہ ،زکوٰة، حج اور جہاد کی تفصیلات رسول اکرم نے بیان فرمائی ہیں۔
مختلف علاقوں میں پائے جانے والے ایسے رسوم و رواج اورایسی اقدار جو اسلامی تعلیمات کے منافی نہ ہوںمسلمانوں کو اجازت ہے کہ وہ انہیں اپنے مخصوص خطے یا علاقے میں اختیار کرسکتے ہیں۔ ان میں میلے، اجتماعات اور دیگر تقریبات شامل ہیں۔
Sunday, August 7, 2011
2. In Pakistan the ratio of industrial progress was 7.6% during the year 2001-2002.
3. Handicraft, wood work and iron work industries are some of the examples of Cottage Industry.
4. Rugs embroidery and toys industries are some of the examples of Cottage Industry.
5. Poultry farms, dairy farms and honey making industry are the main Small Scale Industries.
6. Pakistan Steel Mills and Shipyard in Karachi are Heavy industries.
7. Textile INdustry Leather and Leather goods industry are Heavy Industries.
8. Pakistan Steel Mill is the biggest inudstry in Public Sector.
9. Texila Defence industry was setup with the help of China.
10. In 1952, government established the Department of Industrial Progress Corporation to
11. In 1961, Pakistan Industrial Bank was established.
12. In 1949, a department of Scientific and Industrial Research was established.
13. In 1949, Industrial Finance Corporation was made.
14. In 1953, a council of Industrial research was found.
15. Two industries Bolan Textile and Lusbaila Textile are being established by the cooperation of
16. Lawrencepure, Hernai, Noshera and Quaidabad are famous for Woollen thread.
17. The factories preparing rubber goods are working in Lahore, Sialkot and Karachi.
18. Karachi Shipyard is working in Karachi which is preparing small size ships.
19. A factory of Ship making is also being established at Bin Qasim.
20. There are 25 ghee factories in Pakistan.
21. First ammunition factory was established at Wah in 1951.
22. Railway and Roads are two types of Land Communication.
23. The first railway track was laid between Karachi and Kotri in 1861.
24. Other production of our articles are carried to different parts of the country by roads.
25. National Highway connects the north and south of the country.
26. Shahrah-e-Resham was constructed in the north of the country with the help of China.
27. Shahrah-e-Resham links Pakistan and China via Abbottabad, Rawalpindi and Islamabad.
Q.1 Write down four causes of industrial backwardness of Pakistan?
1. Lock of power resources
2. Political instablity
3. Lock of technical education and training
4. Shortage of capital
Q.2 Write down the features of cottage industries?
1. They do not neend big long term loans.
2. No huge capital required.
3. Management is easy.
4. No large frame work is required.
Q.3 Name some important small scale industries of Pakistan?
1. Sports goods industries
2. Surgical instrument industry
3. Carpet industry
4. Leather industry
Q.4 Write down four important centres of cotton textile mills?
1. Punjab Province : Faisalabad, Multan and Lahore.
2. Sindh Province: Karachi, Hyderabad and Gambit.
3. Balochistan Province: Quetta and Lasbela.
4. N.W.F.P: Peshawar and Swat.
Q.5 Write down any four major imports of Pakistan?
2. Iron Ore
4. Edible Oil
Q.6 Write down any for major exports of Pakistan?
2. Sports goods
3. Cotton Textiles
4. Surgical Instruments
Q.7 Write down means of any three railway routs of Pakistan.
1. Peshawar to Karachi via Rawalpindi, Lahore and Rohri.
2. Rawalpindi to Faisalabad via Wazirabad.
3. Multan to Jacobabad via Dera Ghazi Khan
Q.8 Write down the names of three big highways?
1. National Highway from Karachi to Torkham via Peshawar.
2. Karachi-Quetta Highway via Khuzdar.
3. Quetta-Peshawar Highway.
Q.9 What steps should be taken by the government for the industrial development?
1. Peace should be prevailed.
2. The trade rules should be simplified.
3. Smuggling should be controlled.
4. The long term loans with easy installment should be given to the people.
Pakistan industrial progress depends upon the following factors:
2. Means of transportation and communications.
3. Best utilization of natural resources.
4. Financial resources
5. Increase of the capability of human productivity resources.
6. Increase of the supply of goods to the international market.
7. Promotion of banking.
8. Emphasis on the technology.
9. Expansion of the markets.
10. Increase in the income of the people so that they may increase their consumption and savings.
It means business through electronic media. This is world of computer technology. It is now being used in the industry, commerce and homes. Now one car deal with the others with the help of a computer. the world has become a global village.
Advantages of E-Commerce
E-Commerce is the new method of doing business in the world. Different industries advertise their products on the internet with their prices. Whereas every person sitting at home or in office can see the pictures and prices, of the commodities of those industries through internet. One can directly take information from the company. by E-Commerce, we can sell anything at suitable prices, and can earn profit. This is called E-Commerce business.
By Using Credit Cards
Money can be transferred through credit cards. Those people who have credit card can purchase everything from factories and get delivery through courier within few days.
Various Means of Communication
The means of communication are mail, telegraph, telex, telephone, television, newspaper, magazines, radio, internet, e-mail and e-commerce, etc. People come closer to one another through all these means. They help the businessmen to make deals quickly, and keep them in touch with price fluctuations. They also help to send documents to distant places in no time.
Types of Communication
There are two types of land communication:
Pakistan railway is the most important of our transportation system but it is not fully being used.Roads bear the maximum burden. It is called P.R. In the beginning railway engines were operated by coal. Now diesel engines have been raplaced by electric engines. The first railway track was laid between Karachi and Kotri in 1861. At some places double liens are arranged and new railway lines are being laid. Railway has 600 locomotive railway engines and 23459 good wagons.
Steps towards Improvement of Pakistan Railway
More facilities are being provided to the passengers. Modern signal system has been adopted. Mughalpura workshop, Lahore and Islamabad Wagon shop are repairing engines and tail compartments improve the system of railway. It is very important that Pakistan Railways should improve the means of transportation of goods to enhace the industrial and economic progress.
Problems of Pakistan Railways
There is mismanagement of railways which has created following problems:
Old and Rusty Machinery
Most of the machinery has become old and rusty. It has not been repaired or replaced so far.
Slow Speed of Goods Trains
The speed of goods train is slow so people send their goods by roads. Thus railway suffers financial loss.
Lack of New Powerful Engines
Pakistan, Railway suffers from shortage of new powerful engines. Passenger and Express trains are usually pulled by these engines, which go out of order commonly thus causing delay of goods and passenger trains.
Old Railway Tracks
Old and rusty railway tracks, sleepers and wagons, cause increasing railway accidents.
Mismanagement and Inefficiency
Mismanagement, over staffing and inefficiency of the workers are the main reasons, which cause financial losses to Pakistan Railway. The management of Pakistan Railway is not competent.
Lack of Accountability System
There is no proper system of accountablity in railways department.
Roads are very important for our trade. Different cities have been linked by roads and much of our production and raw material is carried from one place to another through roads. The majority of our population travels by road. Moreover agricultural goods and other production of our articles are carried to different parts of the country by roads.
Important Roads of Pakistan
Only one highway connects the north and the south of the country, i.e. Karachi, Hyderabad, Multan, Sahiwal, Lahore, Gujranwala, Rawalpindi and Peshawar. This national highway is a mean of transportation of 56% of goods and the people of the country from one place to another.
It was constructed in the north of the country with the help of China passes through the highest mountain of the world. Shahrah-e-Resham links Pakistan and China via Abbottabad, Rawalpindi and Islamabad.
Length of Roads in Pakistan
There are many long roads in the country which are of both good condition and quality. The length of roads in Pakistan is 251661km which are 148877 km of good quality and 102784km of low quality.
Need for Motorway
There was great burden on the National Highway No. 5. Due to traffic burden its performance does not meet the requirements. This rush could not be reduced even by making the National Highway two ways. Tranportation of goods from one place to another as well as travelling takes lot of time. It has necessitated a new motorway in country.
A part from this, Gawadar Motorway is also being constructed which is 865km long.
Karachi-Hub Kakar Motorway
Karachi-Hub Kakar Motorway is 341 km long and it was opened for traffic in 1998. In Pakistan the project of motorway is divided into 3 parts, first part comprises six roads called Islamabad Lahore Motorway and it is 335 km long. Second part that connects Islamabad and Peshawar is 154 km long and the third part that connects Multan to Shikarpur is 317 km long.
Objective of the Construction of Motorway
1. To Reduce Burden of Traffic
Motorway reduces the heavy burden of traffic on the National Highway of Pakistan.
2. To Make Transportation Speedier
It makes the transportation speedier.
3. Opportunities for World Trade
It provides new opportunities to the people living around the motorway to earn income as the motorway connects them with the world trade.
4. Harmony Among People
It is playing a vital role for provision of more opportunities for the purpose of harmony among the different parts of the country.
5. Establishment of Industry
Int increases chances of establishment of industrial empire in different parts of the country.
6. Increase in Income
It enchances the national and per capital income of the country.
Means of Air Transport
Today airways are of great importance. It does not only save time but also carried goods to far off and unapproachable places. The luggage of different types can also be carried from one place to another by air.
Means of transportation and communication means the source by which we can go from one place to another and also carry our goods. These are called means of transportation. Means of transportation and communication are very important for the economic progress of any country. These means included, Rail, Roads and water.
Advantages of Means of Transportation and Communication
Following are its advantages:
1. Local and Foreign Trade
These means of transportation are very fruitful in bringing raw material to factories and then carrying useful materials to the markets. It broadens the sphere of the local and foreign trade and import/export of materials becomes easy.
2. Transporations between Cities/Villages
Transport of goods, service and labour in between the cities and villages is important. It is necessary for social progress as well. If transportation will be rapid, cheap and easy we will feel comfort bringing raw materials and useful goods from one place to another.
3. Promotion of Geographical Skills
The superiority of developed countries is due to the means of transportation. Their abundance and bettermet is necessary, for our country’s progress, for this purpose opening of new land and sea routes is necessary being a geographical skill.
4. Promote Agriculture
For agricultural progress good roads are necessary. If these are efficient, transportation of fertilizers, oil machinery and crops are easy to carry from one place to another. Every village should be linked to city by a good road.
5. Speed of Progress
Means of transportation and communication strongly link one city and other. They maintain the speed of progress in different parts of the country.
6. Suitable Prices
By good means of transport, it is very easy to carry things from one place to another. All the people remain familiar with the rates of market and helps in keeping the prices stationary.
7. Increase in the Income
Transportation has much importance in the stability and economic progress of a country. good means of transportation and communication helps in increasing the income of the people and their standard of living.
8. Increase in the Revenue
Good means of transportation and communication increase the revenue of the government.
9. Progress in Tourism
Tourism will progress by better means of Transport. Tourists can also enjoy when they will get the facility of transport. Tourists can easily go from one place to another. Good means of transportation and communication help in uniting the different regions of the country and promote brotherhood.
10. Social Welfare
These means affect the social welfare of a country very much. All the people get benefit from these means for the progress of the society. These means bring the people close and they understand each other. Due to these means civilization becomes vast and unity is established. They also hep in the bettermet of social welfare.
11.Efficiency of Defence
It is very important for armed forces. By these means our soldiers and their armaments like vehicles, trucks, tanks are carried from one place to another for this purpose the standard of transportation should be very high. Good means of transportation ensure the efficiency of the defence. So the defence of the country becomes more reliable.
12. Increase Political Awarness in the Country
Means of transportation and communication will be helpful in political affairs. It also increases political awareness of people in the country.
In the beginning provincial and central governments took various steps to remove the difficulties in transportation. Now by the efforts of public and government we have got control on our difficulties. New roads have been made and old roads have been repaired. New railway trancks have been laid. In the same way the sea and air ways have also done much progress. Telegram, telephone; radio and televison systems range have been made vast.
Friday, August 5, 2011
The Important Major Industries of Pakistan
There are the following important industries of Pakistan.
Cotton Textile Industry
After the freedom of Pakistan the maximum progress was made by the industry of cotton cloth Pakistan got its share of three industries. Cotton cloth was mostly imported. Government gave much importance to this industry and encouraged. At that time 850 small and large industries were working. In 1975 the produce of cloth was 70 crore yarns. Now our country is independent in some types of cloth yards but cotton cloth is also being exported. Japan and Hong Kong are the biggest importers of our cloth. Now the import of this industry is finished. Its industries are mostly in Faisalabad, Lahore and Karachi. Faisalabad is called the Manchester of Pakistan. Two industries Bolan Textile and Lusbella are being established by the cooperation of Iran. It will cost Rs. 67 Crores.
Woollen Textile Industry
There are no industry of woollen cloth in Pakistan before partition. One difficulty is that fine woollen thread has to be imported. Country wool is not so good that it can be used in the manufacturing of good quality cloth. It is mostly used in carpet making high quality woollen cloth blanket and woollen thread in Pakistan is made in Bannu, Karachi, Lawrencepur, Hernai Multan, Noshera and Quaidabad.
There was only industry of cement when Pakistan came in to being. Now many industries are working in Daud Khel, Dandkot, Hyderabad, Wah, Rohrim Jhelum, Hazara and Karachi. Calcium Carbonate, Gypsum and Special clay which is used in its manufacturing is sufficient for Pakistan. A factory is being made in Spuntungy in Balochistan with the cooperation of Iran. Second factory is under construction at Gudai in Lasbella. Factories of cement are also working in Gharibwal, Farooqui, Noshera, Kohar and Nooriabad.
Sugar factories are working in Mardan, Faisalabad, Joharabad, Bunny, Pattoki, Charsada, Larkana, Chorister, Tando Muhammad Khan, Bahawalpur, Jhung, Layyah, Darya Khan and Gujrat. Five factories in Punjab and three in Province of Sindh are being constructed. One factory is also being made in Frontier.
There was no fertilizer factory in Pakistan when it came into being but now several factories are working Daud Khel, Multan and Faisalabad.
Animal skins are the important crude material of Pakistan. Many big factories are working in Lahor, Karachi and Hyderabad. Pakistan earns enough foreign exchange by exporting new leather and leather good. Now there are eigthy factories working in Pakistan which are cleaning leather.
Factories of paper making have been set up in Lahore, Noshera, Charsadda and Gharo. For newspapers need a factory is working in Hyderabad and a factory has also been set up in Shakarghar.
Card Board Industry
The needs of cardboard are also met through import. Now a factory in Noshera produces good quality of cardboard. A factory at Rahwali in Gujranwala is preparing cardboard.
The factories preparing rubber goods are working in Lahore, Sialkot and Karachi where tires and tubes of cycles. Motor cycles, scooter and heavy vehicles shoes toes, rubber seats, mats and other thins are being prepared.
Electric Goods Industry
Pakistan has progressed much in electric industry. The factories of wire making and radio circuits are progressing T.V. radio, refrigerator and air-conditioners are also being manufactured. These factories are in Lahore, Karachi, Gujrat and Gujranwala.
There are some factories in Karachi and Lahore which are making pig iron from crude iron. The factory of pig iron would have been formed long ago but now it is too late. Now steel mill in Karachi is working with the cooperation of Russia.
A factory has been set up at Texilla with cooperation of China which prepares parts of engines, railway wagons, wheels and axles, road building machines etc.
Karachi Shipyard is working in karachi which is preparing small size ships. Now it is also making big ships. A factory of ship making is also being established in Bin Qasim.
Oil Refining Industry
These industries are working Rawalpindi, Multan and Karachi.
Industry of Banaspati Ghee
In Pakistan the industry of banaspati ghee has progressed much but its production is less the need of our country. More factories are being set up. There was no ghee factory in Balochistan at the time of partition. But now two factories are working at Quetta and Temple Dera. In 1973 this industry was nationlized. Government is establishing more factories according to our needs. Two factories are located in Northern areas and one is being set up on tribal areas. Now there are 25 ghee factories in Pakistan.
In Pakistan the industries of soda ash, colour, caustic soda, sulphuric acid, insecticides and pharmacy medicines have done much progress.
We are preparing Rifles, Machine Guns, Mortars and other small weapons. Pakistan is self dependent in these arms and is also exporting to other Muslim countries. At Kamra (Attock) factories are making airplanes and doing the work of their repair. Here facilities are available for repining Mirage and F-16 are also for their complete assembling. A small airplane is made at Kara to train the new pilots. Its name is Mushaak.
Many other industries have also progressed much. Among them, industries of flour grinding, cigarette making, match sticks, glass making and cycle making are important.
Heavy industry is that industry which not only produces goods on large scale but also produces machines and raw material for other industries e.g. Pakistan Steel Mill and Shipyard in Karachi.
Example of Heavy Duty Industry
There are 11 types of Industries working in Pakistan.
(1) The petroleum products Industry.
(2) Automobile Industry.
(3) Cement and Chemical fertlizers Industry.
(4) Ghee and Cooking oil Industry.
(5) Tobacco and Cigarette Industry.
(6) Textile Industry.
(7) Leather goods Industry.
(8) Paper products Industry.
(9) Cosmetics and toilet Chemical Industry.
(10) Plastic goods Industry.
(11) Sugar Industry.
Public Sector Industry
From 1970 the government is producing heavy industrial goods. But some heavy industries have been sold to the private sector. At this time cooperation and 40 industrial units are in public sector to 2001 sector provided 24886 jobs to the people. Pakistan Steel Mill is the biggest industry in public sector which produces basic raw material for the industry.
Defence industry plays an important role in safety of our country. In Wah Aid Texila, defence industries are preparing small and large weapons. Texila defence industry was set up with the help of China, Kahuta Laboratories and promoting aur nuclear program. At Chashma there are similar laboratories which are fulfilling the requirements of our defence. Through the Fauji Foundation some other industries have been setup in which retired army personnel are engaged to produce different goods including army uniforms.
Small Scale Industry
Small scale industry has always been praised in different ways in various countries. In Pakistan this industry is that one which after employing 2 to 9 workers produces different goods for the market on small scale. Following are the main small scale industries.
Poultry farms, dairy farm, honey making industry, carpets, pots, sports goods, fans and electric motors etc.
Problems of Small Scale Industry
(I) Decreases in the Productive Capabilities of the Labour
Small scale industrialists
have less capital. That’s why they cannot expand their bussiness due to lack of capital.
(II) Lack of Technical Skills
Workers are uneducated and unskilled. Due to non-availibility of new technology it is very difficult for the semi skilled and illiterate workers to maintain the standard of their products. So they cannot establish large scale industry because of lack of technical skills.
(III) Lack of Cooperation
Due to lack of cooperation small scale industry faces different difficulties. The difficulty to find the profitable markets and competition with the large scale industries which produces better goods and the small industry has to face losses.
(IV) Outdated Means of Production
The cause of problems in small scale industry is that they use mainly old and outdated means of production.
(V) Step Motherly Treatment
The Step Motherly Treatment of the government departments creates lot of problems. Small industry finds it difficult to get the good raw material. It cannot train their workers and pay them good wages. They work without the benefits of social security.
Causes of Backwardness of Industry in Pakistan
Following are the causes of the lack of industrial progress in Pakistan.
(I) Industrial Policies of Different Governments
When new government takes over it disposes of all policies of previous government. Due to this our country faces great problems and causes lack of progress.
(II) Decrease in the Capital
Every industry wants a large number of capitals but due to lack of capital industry will not progress.
(III) Limited Markets
Limited markets are also the cause of lack of industrial progress.
(IV) Decreases in the Productive Capabilities of the Labour
When labour will works hard then any industry makes progress and production will also improve and increase. If labour will not work then industry will deteriorate.
(V) Lack of Means of Transportation and Communication
Communication plays an important and vital role in industry’s progress. If communication system is in disorder then our product is out of order. That’s why lack of communication and transportation also causes the industry failure.
(VI) Expensive Means
Expensive means of transportation and communication.
(VII) Lack of Technical Knowledge
If workers are not technical minded then our industry will not progress. Lack of our technical workers is the downfall of our industries.
(VIII) Shortage of Entrepreneurs
Because of shortage of entrepreneurs industry will not progress.
(IX) Lack of Education
Lack of political coordination and political stability is the cause of industry’s failure.
(X) Non-Availibility of Electricity
Non-Availibility of Electricity in many regions.
(XI) Common Load Shedding
Electricity plays an important role in Pakistan’s progress. Pakistan is not self sufficient in electricity that’s why common load shedding also causes failure in industry’s progress.
(XII) Economic Restrictions Imposed by Other Countries
An economic restriction imposed by other countries also causes failure of industry’s progress.
(XIII) Lack of Effective Exploration of the World Market
Lack of effective exploration of the world market also causes failure of industry’s progress.
Industry is such a place where the enterpreneur and labour through the machines and tools convert the shape of capital raw material and natural resources in such way that their utility may increase to fulfill the needs of the people to a large extent and may fetch maximum price in the market.
Factors of Industrial Progress
In Pakistan the ratio of industrial progress was 7.6% during the year 2000-2002 which is much lower in the world. Following are the factors of Industrial progress.
(I) Increase National Income
Industrial progress increases the national income.
(II) Raising Living Standard
Raises the living standard of the people.
(III) Economic Stability
Creates economic Stability.
(IV) Balance of Payment
Improved the balance of payments of the country.
(V) Increases Exports
Promotes exports and earns foreign exchange.
(VI) Progress of other Sectors
Promotes the progress of other sectors.
(VII) Employment Opportunities of Employment
Provides opportunities of employment.
Encourages specialization in the country.
(IX) Progress of Agriculture
Help in the progress of agriculture.
(X) Provides New ThingsProvides new thing to the people
Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Natural Resources and Their Importance in National Development" "Fill in the Blanks"
1. Allah has created plants, trees, minerals and water for human beings as well as animals. They are called natural resources.
2. The upper layer of the earth which is composed of different thin rock particles is helpful in the growth of vegetation and plants that is called soil.
3. Solid particles air and water are the basic components of soil.
4. Those materials which are transported from one place to another by rivers and deposited at other places are called Alluvium soil.
5. Wind transports the material from one place to another which is deposited over the surface that is called Aeolian soil.
6. The Indus plain is made with the deposition of Alluvium by the Indus River and its tributes.
7. Bangar soils cover a vast area of the Indus Plain.
8. Indus Delta soils extend from Hyderabad to the South Coastal area.
9. Rice is cultivated in the major part of Indus Delta soils.
10. 1/3 of the total energy requirements of Pakistan are fulfilled by forests.
11. It is important for balanced economy of a country to have forests on about 25% of area.
12. There are evergreen forests in northern and north-western parts of Pakistan.
13. Northern and north-western parts of Pakistan receive more rainfall due to evergreen forests.
14. Hardwood for the making of furniture is available from evergreen forests.
15. The dry hill forests are found at altitude of about 900 to 3000 meters in Quetta and kalat division of Balochistan.
16. Mangrove forests are found along the coastline from Karachi to Kutch.
17. Forests provide wood as fuel in place of coal.
18. Rivers carry huge amount of sand and silt that fill our dams and lakes.
19. Forests make 3.6% of the total area of Pakistan.
20. The mineral development corporation was established in 1975.
21. Iron ore, Chromites and Copper are the Metallic Minerals.
22. Rock Salt, Limestone, Gypsum, Marble and Sulphure are the Non-Metallic marbles.
23. China Clay and Fire Clay are the Non-Metallic marbles.
24. Gemstone is a Non-Metallic marbles.
25. Coal Natural Gas and Crude Oil are the Power Resources minerals.
26. The biggest mine of coal is Salt Range in Punjab.
27. The oil obtained from Attock, Jhelum and Chakwal districts is refined in Morgah Refinery near Rawalpindi.
28. The reservoirs of natural gas are in Sui, Uch, Zin, Kherpur, Muzrani, Hindi, Kundkot, Sarung, Dhodak, Peerkoh and Dhullian.
29. Pakistan set up a Steel Mill in Karachi with the cooperation of Russia.
30. The biggest reservoir of iron is found in Kala Bagh.
31. Chromite is a white metal which is used to make iron.
32. The biggest mine of rock salt is found at Khewra.
33. Limestone is very useful raw material for cement industry.
34. Gypsum is a bright stone of white colour.
35. In Khyber Agency at Mullah Gori, the best kind of Marble is found.
36. Angora (District Swat) and Tharparkar (Sindh) are known for China Clays.
37. Fire Clay is used in kilns of bricks.
38. 25% area of total area of Pakistan is cultivated.
39. Wheat, Sugarcane, maize and rice are major food crops.
40. 55% of peoples are working in the field of Agriculture.
41. 70% cultivated area of the country is under irrigation system.
42. The artificial way of watering the crops is called Irrigation.
43. Pakistan is irrigated by five rivers which are Rave, Stale, Helium, China and Indus.
44. Karez system of irrigation is used in Balochistan.
45. River Indus, Jhelum and Chenab are the main sources of water for Pakistan.
46. Upper Ban Doab and Lower Ban Doab are two important canals of river Ravi.
47. The upper Chenab and lower Chenab irrigate the area of Rachna Doab.
48. Upper Jhelum and lower Jhelum irrigates the area of Chaj Doab.
49. The Peshawar area is irrigated by the canal from Swat River.
50. Hydroelectricity and thermal electricity are important Power Resources.
51. The Ghazi Barotha project in river Indus is used for Hydroelectricity.
52. This Tarbela Dam dam is situated on Indus River.
53. The Tarbela is one of the biggest Dams of the world.
54. The Mangla Dam is located on Jhelum River.
55. Pakistan has operated Atomic Blasts in Chagi in Balochistan on 28 May 1998.
Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Natural Resources and Their Importance in National Development" "Short Questions Answers"
Q.1 Write down the kinds of Pakistan Soils?
A. Residual Soils: They are formed at the sites of origin when rocks and hills breaks. It is mostly unfit for cultivation.
B. Transported Soils; They are carried by various agents eg. Speedy water of streams, rivers and strong winds.
Q.2 Write down the soils of North Western Mountains Regions?
A. The colour is dark brown
B. It is capable for vegetation
C. They are found in Swat, Chitral and Gilgit.
Q.3 Write down the soil of Upper Indus Plain?
A. The colour is blackish.
B. It has high constants of calcium carbonate and less organic matter.
C. They are found in Attock, Lahore, Multan etc.
Q.4 Write down the soil of Indus Delta?
A. The colour is black.
B. The soil contains clay, under flood water condition saline loamy.
C. The soil is located in Indus Delta.
Q.5 Write down the soil of lower Indus Basin?
A. It has multiple colours.
B. It has lime stone, silt and clay.
C. It is found in North West of River Indus and South Eastern area of river Indus.
Q.6 Write down the agriculture forests?
A. Forests of North East.
B. Shrub Forests.
C. Balochistan hills forests.
D. The Tidal forests.
Q.7 Write the cool producing area in Pakistan?
A. PUNJAB: Pidh, Makarwal and Arokhat chala are imporatant cool producing recognised.
B. SINDH: Jhampir, Tharparkar are important cool producing organs.
C. NWFP: Koirata is an important cool producing regions.
D. Balochistan: Hornic and Ziarat are important cool producing region.
Q.8 Write the Gypsum producing areas of Pakistan?
A. Punjab: Mianwali and Jhelum.
B. Balochistan: Quetta and Sibbi.
C. N.W.F.P: Kohat.
D. Sindh: Dadoo.
Q.9 Write the four food crops of Pakistan?
Q.10 Write the cash crop of Pakistan?
B. Sugar Cane
Q.11 Write down any four agricultural problems of Pakistan?
A. UN economic land holding
B. Scarcity of water
C. Soil Erosion
D. Lack of means of Transportation
Q.12 Write down four step which government have taken for the development of agriculture?
A. Establishment of Model forms
B. Increase irrigation facilities
C. Control over water logging and salinity
D. Use of communication media
Q.13 Write down the means of irrigation in Pakistan?
B. Tube Wells
Q.14 Write down canal system of upper Indus valley?
A. The upper and the lower Jhelum Canals.
B. The upper and the lower Chenab Canals.
C. Thal Canal.
D. Warsak Dam Canal.
Q.15 Write down the canal system of lower Indus Valley?
A. Guddu Barrage Canal.
B. Sukkur Barrage Canal.
C. Kotri Barrage Canal.
Q.16 Write down the multipurpose dam in Pakistan?
A. Mangla Dam
B. Tarbella Dam
C. Kala Bagh Dam
Q.17 Write down the sources of energy in Pakistan?
D. Water (Hydroelectricity)
Q.18 Write down the names of four aritficial forest of Pakistan?
C. Dera Ghazi Khan
D. Changa Manga
The economic development of a country totally depends upon natural resources. The exploitation of natural resources and their usefulness depends upon the efforts of human beings.
Population of Pakistan
The population of Pakistan has gone beyond 150 millions which has made Pakistan seven biggest country in the world. To meet the needs of growing population we have to increase our agricultural production.
By the grace of Allah our economy is progressing to gain self sufficiency. Moreover some excess production of grains is exported to earn foreign exchange.Education is required to be developed on modern, lines. Modern techniques and research can accelerate the progress of agriculture and industry.
OverCome to Over-Crowed Population
The alarming situation is the rate of growth of population which is more than that of the production of natural resources. This thing effects the economic growth of the country. Through accelerated exploitation of existing energy resources, we can promote economy of the country.
2. Thermal Electricity
3. Solar Energy
4. Atomic Energy
Nature has provided suitable environment in Pakistan. To produce hydroelectricity environment is better for it. The northern and north western area of Pakistan are suitable for building of dams. We can produce hydroelectricity to create steep slopes in rivers and canals.
Best Example of Hydroelectricity
The best example is the Ghazi Barotha project in river Indus.
To Produce Hydroelectricity
Both public and private sectors have planned to increase the production of hydroelectricity in Pakistan.
Pakistan’s total hydroelectricity production is 4963 Megawatt.Pakistan has the capacity of production of 30000 MW from its river Indus, Helium and Chenab.
Important Hydroelectricity Stations
There are three imporatant hydroelectricity stations working in Pakistan.
This dam is situated on Indus River.
Production of Hydroelectricity
The Tarbela dam produces 70% of the total hydroelectricity production of Pakistan. Its installed generation capacity is 3478 MW.
Construction of Dam
The Tarbela Dam was constructed in 1976 and its cost was about Rs.18 billions. This dam is about 9000 feet long. The Tarbela is one of the biggest dams of the world.
This dam is located on Jhelum River.
Production of Hydroelectricity
This dam installed generation capacity of power is 1000 MW which is 20% of total hydroelectricity of the country.
Construction of Mangla Dam
This dam was constructed and completed in 1967 the height of this dam is 110 meters. This dam is made of concrete. This is second biggest dam in Pakistan.
The Thermal power stations are generating electricity by gas, oil and coal in Pakistan.
Production of Thermal
The 49.8% of the total electricity is produced by the thermal power. The thermal power production is 4921 MW in Pakistan.
There are 13 thermal power stations working in Pakistan. The biggest station is working in Karachi this station generates 1756 MW. The second biggest station is working in Multan. It generates 260 MW.
Important Thermal Stations
Other important thermal plants are in Faisalabad, Kotri, Pasni, Guddu, Jamshoro, Muzaffargarh, Sukkur and Larkana etc.
A large number of projects have been planned to meet future energy requirments of Pakistan. This project is working rapidly. If this project work better than our country will make progress by leaps and bounds.
The energy that we get from sun is called solar energy. The climate of Pakistan is extremely hot and dry. Pakistan is situated near the Tropic of cancer so the sun rays are vertical most of the year. These days are hot. That’s why the season of summer is longer than winter in Pakistan. The sun rises most time. We can use this energy to the maximum in life. This is the cheapest source of energy.
Use of Solar Energy
In Pakistan we have abundance of this energy but the important thing is the maximum use of it. This energy is used to operate small machines and motor in future the solar energy will become the biggest source of energy of the world because other sources of energy are costly and difficult to exploit.
Atomic energy is the advance source of this world. Altough this source of energy is very sophisticated and multi disciplinary system. As the rapid growth of population sources are also increasing at the same rate. That’s why it is an important source of energy in developing coutries.
Pakistan is an Atomic Power
By the grace of Allah Pakistan has become a great Atomic Power. Pakistan has operated Atomic blasts in Chagi in Balochistan on 28 May 1998. Pakistan had to face many difficulties to achieve progress in the atomic program.
Nuclear Power Technology
Nuclear Power technology was introduced in Pakistan in 1971 when a plant of 136 MW capacity namely Karachi. Nuclear power plant (KANUPP) was installed. This plant has been operating safely for more than 31 years. In other important Cheshma nuclear power project is also working with the help of China. This has been connected to the national grid on June 13 2000. It has a gross capacity of 325 MW and is located near Cheshma Barrage on left bank of river Indus.
Importance of Power Resources
Power resources play a vital role in the industrial economic development of a country. Pakistan has blessed with power resource. These resources remained unexploited over the years. These resources are required to be filly exploited with the increase in Population so that economy and industry of the country may progress with speed.
Important Canals of Pakistan
River Indus, Jhelum and Chenab are the math sources of water for Pakistan. These rivers have maximum quantity of water during summer but minimum during winter season 84% of the total water flows in these rivers in summer.
The Canals of River Ravi
Upper Ban Doab and lower Ban Doab are two important canals of river Ravi. These canals are very important for the production of summer crops. The upper Bari Doab is and old canal which was constructed in 1868.
The Canals of River Chenab
The upper Chenab and lower Chenab irragate the area of Rachna Doab. The haveli system of canals is also located in this Doab that comes out from Trimmu Head Works.
The Canals of River Jhelum
Chaj Doab has two important canals i.e. upper Jhelum and lower Jhelum. These canals irrigate a large part of the Triple Canal Project and have increased agricultural production. These two canals along with lower Ban Doab link the three rivers i.e. Jhelum Chenab and Ravi.
The Canals of River Sutlej
There are three Head Works on river Sutlej i.e. Feroze-Wala, Sulaimanki and Islam, whereas fourth is on the Puhjnad. These canals irrigate the area of Nili Bar and Bahawalpur.
The Canals of River Indus
The canals from Jinnah Barrage near Kalabagh irrigate the desert area of Thar for agricultural purpose. Districts of D.G. Khan and D.I. Khan are irrigated by a link canal from Chashma barrage, Taunsa barrage and Guddu barrage also have canals which irrigate vast areas.
Following are imporatant canals from river Indus for NWFP.
1. The Canal of River Swat.
2. The Canal from Swat River Irrigates.
3. The Peshawar area.
4. The Warsak Project.
A project in the north west of Peshawar at Warsak is important for the local requirments of the region.
Means of Irrigation
Following are the means of irrigation.
Pakistan is irrigated by five rivers which are Ravi, Satluj, Jhelum, Chenab and Indus. From these rivers canals have been dug. These are very suitable canals for two points of view. Firstly, these rivers come back from ice covered mountains and flow throughout the year. Secondly, they have the same slope.
Rainwater which goes down in our land is collected in the rocks below. In this way a large reserve of water is formed down in the earth. Wells are made to use this water for irrigation. In Punjab a large number of wells have been dug, especially in Tehsil Shakarghar (District Narowal), Gujrat, Lahore and Dera Ghazi Khan Districts. Adequate Irrigation is done by wells. In the valley of Peshawar also irrigation is done by wells. Due to enough rainfall water is not low therefore wells are easily dug.
In the villages where the facility of electricity is available water is drawn out by electric pumps. In this way more water is obtained from wells. So we get more benefits by tube wells.
At many places water collected in ponds. Rain water is collected in them and is used in the hours of need. In the same way in mountain areas, small dams are made to stop water in small canals. Then small canals are dug to bring this water in the fields. These dams are made in less high areas. At some distance from Islamabad, Rawal Dam is made in the same way. By making many such dams in Punjab in the districts of Attock, Rajanpur and Dera Ghazi Khan the deficiency of water has been removed. Similar types of other dams are in provinces of Frontier and Balochistan.
In Pakistan Balochistan is more hot and dry. There is little rainfall small canals become dry in summer due to intencse heat. For irrigation underground houses are made to save water from being absorbed and evaporated. Water is drawn out with the help of Persian wheels and brought to fields.
Importance of Irragation
Irrigation means the artificial way of watering the crops. Irrigation is very important for Pakistan.We have little rainfall therefore we get the help of irrigation in preparing our crops. The progress of our country depends upon the means of irrigation and their progress. All parts except northern mountains depends upon irrigation. 67% of our land is irrigated due to little rainfall. The most important means of our irrigation is our system of canals. Our canals irrigate 70% of our lands while 14% is left for tube-wells, Persian wheels Karez and ponds.
Old Types of Agricultural Instruments
In small field’s modern equipment cannot be used. Due to poverty we cannot use modern equipment. Tractors are not commonly used. We do not know much about modern equipments and scientific methods of agriculture hance production per acre less.
Our farmers should know about the modern research in the field and should adopt modern scientific methods of agriculture.
Lack of Agricultural Education
Due to lack of modern education, our farmers use old methods and equipments. They do not use new seeds and fertilizers.
Farmers should be educated through print and electronic media about agriculture.
The reason of less agricultural production is that our farmers have little amount of land. This is because the number of farmers is increasing with the increase in population.
The scattered pieces of land should be converted into big units.
There is very little rainfall in our country. It rainfall is in the time and enough we can get enough crops.
There should be introduced reforms in the system of irrigation. New canals should be dug.
Problems of Water Logging and Salinity
It is the major problem of Pakistan especially in certain parts of Sindh. Most parts of Sindh are suffering from this disease. According to an estimate about one lac acre land has become useless due to this problem.
There should be planned programmes on national level to reduce this danger.
Insects and Crop Disease
In our lands insects and crops diseases destroy plenty of our crops.
Pesticides should be sprayed at the proper time. There should be research work on drops to control these diseases.
Cutting Action on Land
It happens due to storms and heavy rainfall.
There should be special arrangements for this problem and chemical fertilizers should be used to enhance the fertility of the soil.
Inferior Seeds and Fertilizers
Our farmers are not familiar with the methods of preserving seeds and using the right amount of fertilizers.
Shortage of Money
Due to lack of money average production is much effected. Our farmers are under the influence of loans so they cannot give full intention to their props. They are always worried about the return of loans.
If our farmers get loan on less credit and on easy soft conditions.
This system in Pakistan has many defects. Land owners hand over their land to tenant who do not take interest in producing more crops. They link that the main part of their crop will be taken by the owner of the land. This effects our average produce very badly.
Landlords should take interest in the bussiness. Tenants should be given proper profit and right.
Lack of Medical Facilities
Our farmers is often found suffering from certain medical problems. He is often offering from various diseases due to low standard of living.
There must be enough hospitals in the village from the farmers should get proper medical facilities.
By insufficient means of transportation farmers cannot bring their production to markets at the right time.
Means of transportation should be improved and go downs in a large number are being constructed.
There are three types of minerals.
1. Iron ore.
3. Copper etc.
1. Rock Salt.
4. Marble, Gemstone, China Clay, Fire Clay, Sulphure etc.
Power Resource Minerals
2. Natural Gas.
3. Crude Oil etc.
We have not yet discovered coal which can be used in engines. It is mostly used in manufacturing Calcium Carbonate and bricks. Some coal is also used in homes. We have got coal from various spots places but it is not of good quality. It fulfils 10% of our needs.
The biggest mines of coal is Salt Ranges in Kohistan in the region of Makarwat in Punjab. In these regions coal is also found in Dundot and Pudh. Like Makarwal some mines are such whose tunnels are about nine miles long. In the province of Balochistan many reservoirs are found at other places. Coalmines are in Sharg, Hoset, Hernai, Sar, Dagari, Sheeren Aab, Bolan, Aab and Mush. Processing plant is also set in Shargh. In the lower regions of Sindh mines of Jhimpir and Lakhra are important. Government is in search of more mines.
Minerals oil is very important in modern age. It is used in factories, industries and transport. Motorcars, tractors, train truck etc depending upon this oil. It is also used in homes. Average production of oil in Pakistan cannot meet its needs. We are getting 10% oil for our needs and the rest of the oil is imported on which we spend a large amount of foreign exchange. Experts say that at certain we can get oil from the sea. For this purpose we started digging in 1985 at the coast of our sea in Karachi. At certain other places are digging our earth. If we succeed we shall satisfy our need of oil from our our resources.
We are getting oil from Khor, Bhullian, Tut, Kot Sarug, Miyal, Dherznund (District Attock), Kazian (District Rawalpindi), Dhodak (District Dera Ghazi Khan), Kursal ( District Jhelum), and Khushkhali (District Badeen). The oil obtained from Attock, Jhelum and Chakwal districts is refined in Morgah Refinery near Rawalpindi. Refinery means the industry where crude oil is refined for different purposes.
Natural gas is an important discovery. We meet 35% of our need of energy from this gas. This gas is brought in Lahore, Karachi, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Peshawar and other cities by means of pipelines. This gas is used in Industries and also in our homes as fuel. Fine type of fertilizer is prepared in Multan by using this gas. This gas is aslo used in manufacturing Rayon thread and Chemical materials.
The reservoirs of natural gas are in Sui, Uch, Zin, Kherpur, Muzrani, Hindi, Kundkot, Sarung, Dhodak, Peerkoh and Dhullian.
Iran ore is very important for the progress of a country. We have set up a steel mill in Karachi with the cooperation of Russia. In Pakistan, iron is not of good quality so it is imported to meet our needs.
The biggest reservoir of iron is found in Kala Bagh. Some are also found in Chitral, Khuzdar, Chulgari and Muslim Bagh. Iron obtained from Chitral and Nokundi is of good quality. Our iron fulfills only 16% of our needs.
It is used in manufacturing electric goods especially electric wires. In past it was only used in making coins and utensils.
Its reservoirs are in provinces of Balochistan and Frontier. In Balochistan it is found in Saindak, Chaghi and some other places. These reservoirs are refined by progressive corporation of natural resources. Corporation is working on this plan with cooperation of foreign experts. The work has been started on crude metal in Saindak and Karachi Laboratory.
Saindak Copper Project
In Balochistan, large deposits of copper, gold and silver have been discovered at saindak, Chagai and Amuri. The economy of Pakistan is depended on these projects. China is collaborating with Pakistan on these projects. According to an estimate saindak will give annual production as below.
Copper = 16,000 Tones
Gold = 1.5 Tones
Silver = 2.75 Tones
It is a white metal which is used to make iron. It is also used in manufacturing certain instruments, aero planes and colours. It is also used in the art of photography. It is exported to get large amount of foreign exchange.
Its reservoirs are the biggest of the world in found Pakistan. Theses reservoirs are found in Muslim Bagh. Small reservoirs are found in Chaghi, Kharan, Malakand, Mehmund and North Waziristan.
Rock Salt (Non-Metallic)
Pakistan has vast reserves of salt. It is used in various eatables, the biggest is Khewra Mine. The area of this mine is about 10500 square meters. It is producing high quality of salt from centuries. Another mine is in Khushah. We aslo get salt from mines of Kala Bagh, Jutta and Bahadur Khail. We get salt from seawater near Maripur and Coast of Makran. This sea salt is used to preserve fish and is in some industrial uses. The annual production during the year 2000-01 was 1275 tonnes.
Limestone is very useful raw material for cement industry. It is found in the northern and western mountain areas of Pakistan mostly. Large deposits are found in Daudthail, Wah, Rohri, Hyderabad and Karachi. The annual production of limestone is 9.9 thousand tonnes.
It is a bright stone of white colour. It is an important wealth of our country. It is used in manufacturing cement, chemical fertilizer and plaster of Paris, Sulphuric Acid and Ammonium Sulphate. It is also used in small industries. The annual production of Gypsum is 358.5 thousand tonnes approximately.
It is obtained from Salt range and western mountainous areas of Pakistan. The important mines of Gypsum are in Khewra, Dandot, Daudkhail, Rohri and Kohat.
It is a very beautiful stone of white or black colour. It is used in the floores or walls of building to make them attractive and beautiful. A large quantity of white and black marble is found in Cambelpur near Faith Jung in Kala Chitta Hills. District Muzaffarabad and Mirpur of Azad Kashmir are other important areas where marble is found. The annual production of marble is 586.6 thousand tonnes.
In our country marble is of various types. The best in Khyber Agency at Mullah Gori. It is Swat, Noshera, Hazara, Gilgit and Chaghi.
It is the necassary part of explosive material. It is very important for the defence of a country. It is also used in making Sulphuric Acid and many other chemicals. We get crude Sulphur which is made useful by our experts. Soon we will be able to meet our needs of Sulphur. After cleaning Sulphur, it is also used chemical industries. Industries are being set up in Quetta and Karachi.
Its reserves are found in Koh-e-Sultan (District Chaghi) and (District Karachi).
China clays is found in Mangora (District Swat) and Nagar Parkar (Sindh).
It is used in making strong bricks which is used in Kiln of bricks.
It is found in Kohistan Nimak and Kala Citta Hills. Its reserves also are found in Swat, Hazara and Malakand. In Pakistan clay making Chini utensils are also found. This clay is also used in making tiles and sanitary ware. Its reserves are in Swat, Hazara and Malakund.
It is used in manufacturing cement, sugar and certain other materials. It is also used for the preparation of white wash stone by burning it.
Its reservoirs are found in several parts of our country. Its vast reservoirs are Dandot, Daudkhail, Wah, Rohri, Hyderabad and Karachi.
Role of Forests Department
Government has formed Forests Department for looking after forests and preparing new forests and due to it there is a good increase in the number of forests every year. Forests are necassary for the economic progress of a progress. According to experts 25% area of a country should be consisted of forests for a balanced economy. Unfortunately our forests make 3.6% of the total area of Pakistan which is 19 crore and 70 lac square acre forests cover an area of 72 lac acres. By decrease in the amount of water, the vegetation decreases gradually.
Our Government is trying to increase the forests and has taken following steps.
1. Establishing nurseries in all big cities where plants are available.
2. Tree plantation weeks.
3. Newspaper, magazines, radio and TV provide necassary information and guidance to the people and pursue them to plant trees.
Types of Forests in Pakistan
There are evergreen forests in northern and north-western parts of Pakistan, as these areas receive more rainfall. Beautiful scenes attract human beings. In this way forest are the means of beauty and attraction. These forest include deodar, firs, blue pine, spruce, chalghoza, oak, chestnut and walnut are also important. These are found in Murree, Mansehra, Abbotabad, Chitral, Swat and Dir Hardwood for the making of furniture is available from these trees.
Foot-Hill Areas Forests
Phulai, Kao, Jand, Acacia, wild olive, black berry etc are found in the foothill areas of these forests. The district of Peshawar, Mardan, Kohat, Attock, Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Guj rat are important in this respect.
The dry-hill forests are found at altitude of about 900 to 3000 meters in Quetta and kalat division of Balochistan. Other than thorny forests Mazoo, Chaighoza and poplar are important trees.
Some of the forests are found in Sukkur, Kotri and Guido. The forests department plants trees like mulberry, sum bal, dhrek and eucalyptus along the rivers, canals and railway lines.
Mangrove forests are found along the coastline from Karachi to Kutch.
Importance of Forests
Forest plan an important role being a natural resource in the development af a country as explained below.
Slow Melting of Ice and Soil Erosion
Rain and snow in heavy quantity fall on the northern mountains of Pakistan. These areas are the main source of water of rivers. The forest also stop soil erosion as they slow down the speed of rainwater on the slopes of mountains. They also irrigate teh plains regularly.
Forest provide Fuel
Forest provide wood as fuel in place of coal. They also provide timber, firewood, gum and other useful things which are very important for the trade of country.
Forest make the climate of an area very pleasant as they reduce heat and pollution.
Temperature is reduced by forests and air becomes moist. Rainfall in a region increases due to presence of forests.
Fertility of Soil
Forest keep the soil intact and soil fertility remains uneffected.
Stopage of sand and silt
Rivers carry huge amount of sand and silt that fill our dams and lakes and destroy hydroelectric power projects, the presence of forests stop the sand and silt.
Water Logging and Salinity
Forests are very useful in water logged and salinity effected areas. Trees absorbs water from the soil and lower water level of underground reserves. The forests ate useful in stopping of floods and safety of dams.
Forests promote tourism. There are many places in the northern and north-western mountainious areas of Pakistan. Which are covered with forests and known for recreations for the peoples.
Forests are very important for wild life. In forests animals of hunting are found from which we get meat. In this way forest are the source of the hunting and also act as places of recreation.
Forests provide employment to a large part of population in Pakistan.
Fruits and Fodder
Forests provide different kinds of fruits and fodder to animals.
Imporatant role in Economy
Forests plays an important role in the economy of Pakistan. About five million people are directly or indirectly engaged in this sector we can get building, wood from forests. This wood is used in building and also used in the preparation of furniture.
The herbs grown in forests are used for the preparation of medicines.
The upper layer of the earth which is composed of different thin rock particles is helpful in the growth of vegetation and plants that is called soil.
Basic Components of Soil
Soil has three basic components.
1. Solid particles like salt, mineral and organic matter.
Importance of Soil
The kind of soil totally depends upon climate, location, vegetation and rock material. The agriculture of a country depends upon her soil’s structure and kinds. Soil is a gift of nature.
Those materials which are transported from one place to another by rivers and deposited at other places are called alluvium.
Similarly wind also transports the material from one place to another which is deposited over the surface that is called Aeolian Soil.
Classification of Soils
The soil of Pakistan may be classified according to the regional basis.
Indus basin Soils
The indus plain is made with the deposition of alluvium by the indus river its tributaries. For the last thousands of years rivers have been depositing the soil in the form of layers. These soils have more calcium carbonate and less organic matter. These soils are divided into three main categories.
Bongar soils cover a vast area of indus plain. The area includes most of the part of Punjab, Peshawar, Mardan, Bannu and Kachhi plain. A major part of the province of sindh is also comprised of these soils. Some of these soils are rich and irrigated give very good production. Usually these soils are far from the present rivers beds.
Khaddar soils are also formed along the rivers. So every year new layer of salt clay is deposited. These soils have low content of organic matter and salt.
Indus Delta Soils
These soils cover the river Indus Delta. They extent from Hyderabad to the south coastal area. Most of the soils is clay and developed under floodwater. Rice is cultivated in the major part of these soils.
These soils mostly cover the highlands of northern and western areas of Pakistan. The soils of northern mountainous areas have high content of organic matters because the climate is moist. Whereas the soils of western mountainous areas have high content of calcium carbonate and low content of organic matter because the climate of these areas is arid and semi-arid. The soils of Pothwar plateau have high lime content. They are productive when plenty of water is available.
Sandy Desert Soils
The soils cover the western areas of Balochistan, Cholistan and the desert of Thar in Pakistan. They are formed by layers of sand particles. They have moderate quantity of calcium carbonate. They are made of disposition of sandy soil layer by layer Arid and semi-arid type of climate effect these soils. So the economic activities are very low in deserts.
The life of human beings and other species have deep relation with earth. The earth provides everthing. Human beings need every thing in form of food, water or minerals. We get food from plants and trees. We get milk from animals. We get water from river and streams. These are resources which Allah (the almighty has gifted us.
Plants, Trees, Minerals and Water which Allah has created are sufficient for human beings as well as animals. They are called natural resources.
Some Important Natural Resources
The natural resources are rivers, oceans, forests, minerals, fertile plains etc.
Importance of Natural Resources
Gift of Allah
Allah has gifted us with all kinds of resources. Pakistan has mountains, plains, deserts, rivers, fertile soil, ocean etc. Our country is rich in natural resources. Natural resources are necassary for National Development. Natural resources are very important for the development and prosperity of any county. The important thing is that low to utilize them for the welfare of the human beings and development of the country economically.
It is necassary to use the Natural Resources
The population of Pakistan is increasing rapidly. It is a very good sign that the people of Pakstan are working hard sincerely for the development of country and government is also working for the progess and prosperity of Pakistan. We should have to use the national and human resources to the maximum to develop our country so we can acheive an important position in the world.
1. Pakistan is situated in the continent of Asia.
2. Pakistan is an important country of South Asia.
3. Pakistan total area is 796096 sq.Km.
4. About 58% of the total land of Pakistan consists of mountains and plateau.
5. About 42% of the total land of Pakistan consists of plains and deserts.
6. Pakistan stretches from the coast of the Arabian Sea to the ranges of Himalayas and Karakoram.
7. The western and central areas of Pakistan are mountainious.
8. Pakistan is located between 23 degree north to 37 degree north latitude and 61 degree east to 77 degree east longitude.
9. China lies in the north of Pakistan.
10. Afghanistan and Iran are in the west of Pakistan.
11. India lies in the east of Pakistan.
12. The Arabian Sea is in the south of Pakistan.
13. There is 600 Km long territory of Pakistan along the border of China.
14. The permanent boder between the Afghanistan and Pakistan is called Durand Line
15. Durand line is about 2240 KM along with the border between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
16. In Karachi Bin Qasim and Gwadar are important seaports of Pakistan.
17. The Himalayas, the Karakoram and the Hindukush mountain ranges are in the Northern Mountain Range.
18. The name of one of Himalayan Range top mountain is Nanga Parbat.
19. The height of Nanga Parbat is 8,126 meters.
20. The average height of Karakoram Range is 7000 meters.21. K-2 is 8611 meters.
22. The Hindukush range lies in the North West of Karakoram Range.
23. Tirichmir is 7690 meters high.
24. Khyber Pass is situated in the South of river kabul.
25. Trade with Afghanistan is carried out through Kurrahi Pass.
26. Kohay Suleiman is in the South of river Gornal.
27. Kirthar Range is in the south of karakoram range.
28. The plain above Mithan Kot is called the Upper Indus Plain.
29. The region is the south of Mizhan kot to the Arabian Sea is called the Lower Indus Plain.
30. The Lower Indus Plain includes the most part of Sindh Province.
31. The area which is situated in Bahawalpur is called Cholistan.
32. The southern part of Sindh is called Thar.
33. The length of coastal plain of Pakistan is about 700 KM.
34. The area which consists of ridges, troughs basin plains and dissected plains is known as Plateau.
35. Kala Chitta and Margalla Hills are in the north of Pothohar Plateau.
36. The average height of salt range is 700 meters.
37. Pakistan is situated in the north of Tropic of cancer.
38. Pakistan is a Sub-Tropical country.
39. Sub-Tropical continental highland includes Pakistan’s northern mountain ranges, northwestern mountain ranges and the mountain ranges of Balochistan.
40. Sub-Tropical Continental Lowland includes the upper indus plain Punjab Province and lower indus plain Sindh Province.
41. Sub-Tropical Coastland includes the coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan provinces.
42. Balochi women are very expert in embroidery of glasswork.
43. The people of Thar and deserts cover their head.