Wednesday, August 3, 2011

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Mountain Ranges of Pakistan"


The physical features of Pakistan are no similar everywhere. It means that the land of Pakistan is different in various regions from its type. There are chains of high mountains which are covered with snow throughout the year and also fertile lands and green valleys. There are also vast deserts in Pakistan. There are three relief (Physical Features) of Pakistan.
1. Mountains
2. Plains
3. Plateau


The part of earth, which is almost 3000 feet above the sea level and has a broad base, steep slope and a narrow top is called a mountain. Mountain ranges are divided into two parts in Pakistan.
1. Northern Mountain Range
2. Western Mountain Range

1. Northern Mountains Range

This range includes the Himalayas, the Karakoram and the Hindukush mountain ranges

Himalayan Range

Himalaya is surrounded by most of the part of Pakistan towards North. Himalaya means “the house of ice”. These mountains are spread up to Gilgit. The name of one of its top mountain is Nanga Parbat. Its height is 8,126 meters. The chain of Himalaya saves our plains from cold winds of Middle East. They also stop monsoon from Arabian Sea and Bengal Gulf and becomes the source of rainfall. Their highest tops are covered with snow. When in spring and summer seasons the snow melts, our rivers are supplied with abundant water. On their slopes in the south there are forest of precious wood. The touring resorts of Pakistan like Murree, Nathiagali, Abbottabad and Kaghan Valley are also situated in these ranges. Thousand of people come here for recreation. The valley of kashmir is in the heart of these ranges which is considered the Paradise on Earth.

Karakoram Range

Karakoram is situated in the north of Himalaya in which Northern Kashmir and the regions of Gilgit are situated. The average height of Karakoram range is 7,000 meters. Its highest top is K-2 which is 8.611 meters high. The top of its neighbouring Mountains are covered with snow throughout the year. But in summer the normal life begins and people become busy in earning their livings. The canals flow fast and green grass grows. This mountain range lies between Pakistan and China. Here Karakoram Highway (KKH) has been built along the river Hunza due to which trade between the two countries has progressed very much.

North Western Mountain Range

Hindukush Range

The Hindukush range lies in the north West of Karakoram Range. Most of the mountains of this range are in Afghanistan. The highest top of this range is Tirichimir which is 7690 meters high. In this range Chitral and Deer are situated. These mountains become the source of tains in summer season in Pakistan and India.

2. Western Mountains Ranges

The Koh-e-Sufain

Khyber Pass is situated in the South of river Kabul which joins Kabul to Peshawar this Pass is an old passage of trade. All the invaders in olden times entered in the Sub-Continent through this Pass which is 53 km long. Peshawar Cantonment lies close to Khyber Pass the koh-e-Sufaid is in the South of this Pass. The average heigh of this are covered with snow throughout the year.That is why it is called Koh-e-Sufaid. River kurram flows in its south. Trade with Afghanistan is carried out through Kurrahi Pass.

Kohat And Waziristan Hills

Kohat and Waziristan hills are situated between two rivers i.e. Gomal and Kurram. This mountain range is spread to north-south direction. River Tochi is an important river of this range. There are many passes through these mountains. These passes promote cultural and trade ties between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Tochi and Kurram passes are located in these hills.

Suleiman Range

Koli Suleiman is in the South of River Gornal. The highest peak is Tukht-e-Suleiman which is 3,500 meters high. It is a barren land . It is destroyed due to floods. Government controls flood by constructing high boundaries. Important place is Bolan at which river Bolan is situated. Through this path, railway line reaches Quetta after passing through Sibbi.

Kirthar Range

It is in the south of Karakoram range which is high and dry. The maximum heigh of the Kirthar range is 2150 meters. In its south river Hub and Lyari flow which fall in the Arabian Sea at karachi.

Salt Range

The chain of Salt Range starts from the mountains of Tilla Jogian and Bakrala Hills on the bank of river Jhelum. These chains run for some distance along the river and then in the West after passing through Bannu meet with the Suleiman Mountain. the average heigh of Slat Range is 700 meters. In district Skesar its heigh becomes 1,500 meters. The river Swan is the famous river of this area.