Sunday, August 7, 2011

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Kinds of Land Transport and Communication"

Various Means of Communication

The means of communication are mail, telegraph, telex, telephone, television, newspaper, magazines, radio, internet, e-mail and e-commerce, etc. People come closer to one another through all these means. They help the businessmen to make deals quickly, and keep them in touch with price fluctuations. They also help to send documents to distant places in no time.

Types of Communication

There are two types of land communication:
1. Railway
2. Roads

1. Railways

Pakistan railway is the most important of our transportation system but it is not fully being used.Roads bear the maximum burden. It is called P.R. In the beginning railway engines were operated by coal. Now diesel engines have been raplaced by electric engines. The first railway track was laid between Karachi and Kotri in 1861. At some places double liens are arranged and new railway lines are being laid. Railway has 600 locomotive railway engines and 23459 good wagons.

Steps towards Improvement of Pakistan Railway

More facilities are being provided to the passengers. Modern signal system has been adopted. Mughalpura workshop, Lahore and Islamabad Wagon shop are repairing engines and tail compartments improve the system of railway. It is very important that Pakistan Railways should improve the means of transportation of goods to enhace the industrial and economic progress.

Problems of Pakistan Railways

There is mismanagement of railways which has created following problems:

Old and Rusty Machinery

Most of the machinery has become old and rusty. It has not been repaired or replaced so far.

Slow Speed of Goods Trains

The speed of goods train is slow so people send their goods by roads. Thus railway suffers financial loss.

Lack of New Powerful Engines

Pakistan, Railway suffers from shortage of new powerful engines. Passenger and Express trains are usually pulled by these engines, which go out of order commonly thus causing delay of goods and passenger trains.

Old Railway Tracks

Old and rusty railway tracks, sleepers and wagons, cause increasing railway accidents.

Mismanagement and Inefficiency

Mismanagement, over staffing and inefficiency of the workers are the main reasons, which cause financial losses to Pakistan Railway. The management of Pakistan Railway is not competent.

Lack of Accountability System

There is no proper system of accountablity in railways department.

2. Roads

Roads are very important for our trade. Different cities have been linked by roads and much of our production and raw material is carried from one place to another through roads. The majority of our population travels by road. Moreover agricultural goods and other production of our articles are carried to different parts of the country by roads.

Important Roads of Pakistan

Only one highway connects the north and the south of the country, i.e. Karachi, Hyderabad, Multan, Sahiwal, Lahore, Gujranwala, Rawalpindi and Peshawar. This national highway is a mean of transportation of 56% of goods and the people of the country from one place to another.


It was constructed in the north of the country with the help of China passes through the highest mountain of the world. Shahrah-e-Resham links Pakistan and China via Abbottabad, Rawalpindi and Islamabad.

Length of Roads in Pakistan

There are many long roads in the country which are of both good condition and quality. The length of roads in Pakistan is 251661km which are 148877 km of good quality and 102784km of low quality.


Need for Motorway

There was great burden on the National Highway No. 5. Due to traffic burden its performance does not meet the requirements. This rush could not be reduced even by making the National Highway two ways. Tranportation of goods from one place to another as well as travelling takes lot of time. It has necessitated a new motorway in country.

Gawadar Motorway

A part from this, Gawadar Motorway is also being constructed which is 865km long.

Karachi-Hub Kakar Motorway

Karachi-Hub Kakar Motorway is 341 km long and it was opened for traffic in 1998. In Pakistan the project of motorway is divided into 3 parts, first part comprises six roads called Islamabad Lahore Motorway and it is 335 km long. Second part that connects Islamabad and Peshawar is 154 km long and the third part that connects Multan to Shikarpur is 317 km long.

Objective of the Construction of Motorway

1. To Reduce Burden of Traffic

Motorway reduces the heavy burden of traffic on the National Highway of Pakistan.

2. To Make Transportation Speedier

It makes the transportation speedier.

3. Opportunities for World Trade

It provides new opportunities to the people living around the motorway to earn income as the motorway connects them with the world trade.

4. Harmony Among People

It is playing a vital role for provision of more opportunities for the purpose of harmony among the different parts of the country.

5. Establishment of Industry

Int increases chances of establishment of industrial empire in different parts of the country.

6. Increase in Income

It enchances the national and per capital income of the country.

Means of Air Transport

Today airways are of great importance. It does not only save time but also carried goods to far off and unapproachable places. The luggage of different types can also be carried from one place to another by air.

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