Saturday, August 11, 2012

Class XI, Principles of Economics, "Market"


In ordinary language market means a place where things are bought and sold, but in Economics the market does not mean a particular place or bazar, it only means a commodity and a group of buyers and sellers of the same. Thus we speak of cotton market or share market etc. Same are willing to buy and others are willing to sell. The buyers and sellers can with one another by verbal, by letter, telephone, internet etc but place does not matter.

Classification of Market

Categories of market are:
1. Perfect market
2. Imperfect market
Again categories are classified into:

Market on the Basis of Time

On the basis of time market could be classified into the following kinds:

1. Day–to-Day Market

This type of market is concerned with goods that are perishable like milk, fish, vegetable, fruits etc. The price in this market is determined by the demand of the market. If the demand expands the period is short that the supply can’t be increased immediately at all, therefore the price will increase similarly if demand decrease the time is so short that the surplus supply can’t be stored due to the perishability of the goods, obviously the price will decrease.

2. Short Period Market

It is the market when time allows supply to adjust with the demand of the market to the extent of available size of the firm or producing units. For example: If market demand is so goods per day and particular firm of the same goods could produce max: 100 units by using its full production capacity .If demand increases from 50 to 75 units the firm can supply utilising the unused capacity, but if demand becomes 120 it can’t be satisfied by existing production capacity because total size of firm is 100 units per day.

3. Long Period Market

When the period is so long that the supply can adjust with the demand of the market by changing the size of the firm. If the demand of the market increases immediately the prices will also increase. This increase of price will expand the margin of profits of the producers therefore the firm can increase the production through employing more labor, more machines , raw material etc. By increasing supply reduces the increased prices and they come again on the previous point. Similarly if demand falls the price also decrease and producers curtail their production due to decrease in margin of profits. As consequence of curtail in production the depressed price goes up again on the previous point.

Market on the Basis of Location

Markets can be classified on the basis of location.

1. Local Market

If the goods are sold and purchased in a limited area is called local market. For example: If the goods produced in Karachi are sold in Landhi or Malir, it will be the example of local market. Local market generally is concerned with the perishable good like milk, fish, bricks etc.

2. National Market

This is the kind of the market which covers the whole of the country. For example: the textiles of Karachi are sold in all the four provinces of Pakistan. Similarly sports goods produced in Sialkot are supplied in whole the country.

3. International Market

When the goods produced locally are sold in all the countries of the world is called International market. For example: the cars produced in Japan are sold in whole of the world. The buyers and sellers from all over the world compete with one another therefore prices are influenced by the world environment.

Market on the Basis of Nature of Goods

1. General Market

Market is said to be general where not a specific but general goods are sold and purchased. For example: if cloth, pots, shoes, vegetable, fruit are sold at a time it will be called general market.

2. Specialised Market

In this market special or specific goods are brought to sale in this kind of the market. For example: grains are sold in grain market similarly fruits are sold and purchased in fruit market. These markets provide facility to the buyers that they could purchase goods of their

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