QUESTION NO. 01
Meaning of Ideology
The word “Ideology is French in origin. It is made up of two components namely ‘idea’ and ‘logos’. Ida means concept and logo means studies.
Definition of of Ideology
A collection of beliefs, values, customs, aims, traditions, rituals which is common to all members of a society and its is expressed in the lives of all members of that society is called “Ideology”.
Explanation of Ideology
Ideology is generally used in wider perspective because human beings have unique way of thinking. It constitutes a system of human life whose integral parts are assertion, theories and objectives of human life. In a society the individuals have common beliefs, customs, traditions and rituals.
Importance of Ideology in Practical Life
There is a great importance of ideology in practical life. It gives common thinking and traditions to the people; hence unity is established among them. Thus a common culture is developed in the society due to this particular characteristics of that society are appeared which give it a separate identity in the world. The significance of ideology in practical life can be explained as follows:
* An ideology expresses the ideas and thoughts of all individuals in a society.
* It can unite the people on a platform on the basis of common ideas and traditions.
* It determines the clear principles about the ‘mode of life’, due to this an effective force is developed among people. So they participate in the practical struggle of life.
* It produces self consciousness and prudence among people due to this they become fully aware about basic objectives of a society.
* It helps in fixing the freedom, culture and traditions among the people of a society.
* It explains religious teachings and social values more clearly which help to understand the characteristics of that society.
* All individuals spend purposeful and civilized lives due to an ideology.
QUESTION NO. 02
Definition of Islamic Ideology
An ideology which enlightens the Islamic teachings, the teachings of Quran and Sunnah, Islamic mode of life and culture is known as Islamic Ideology.
Islam is a complete mode of life and Islamic ideology is established on the basis of golden principles of Islam. It helps in gaining peace and comfort in life. It teaches us the basic principles for the individual and collective welfare of mankind.
Characteristics of Islamic Ideology
The following are the important characteristics of Islamic Ideology:
1. Islamic ideology helps the people to spend their lives according to the teachings of Quran and Sunnah.
2. It provides a complete picture of Islamic way of life and traditions.
3. It helps in the construction of Islamic society according to the commands of Allah.
4. It helps in establishing the basic principles like human respect, tolerance, justice and equality, fraternity and mutual co-operation.
Sources of Islamic Ideology
There are following sources of Islamic Ideology:
1. The Holy Quran
3. Traditions and Cultural Values
The Holy Quran
It is the book of guidance which was revealed on the last prophet Hazrat Mohammad (Peace be upon him). The Holy Quran is the permanent basis of Islam. It provides detailed guidance to the people, concerning social and economic laws, leading to a sustainable, peaceful and purposeful life at the individual and collective levels.
Sunnah of the Prophet (P.B.U.H)
The second important source of Islamic Ideology is the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (Peace be Upon Him). Our holy prophet (P.B.U.H) elaborated the injunctons of Islam by his words and deeds. The detailed explanation of the teachings of the Holy Quran is found in Sunnah.
Traditions and Cultural Values
The third important source of Islamic ideology is traditions and culture. It is the way of passing life in which such a balanced life is adopted which makes the life peaceful and comfortable and peace is also established in the collective life of the society. The values and traditions, which do not run opposite to the teachings of Islam are allowed to be followed by the Muslims in their respective regions
QUESTION NO. 03
THE CONTENTS OR COMPONENTS OF IDEOLOGY
There are some certain components of an ideology which are collectively called as the Contents of an Ideology. These contents mutually combined and constitute an ideology; hence the ideology becomes effective and organizes all the individuals in form of a certain group which is called “nation”.
The important and fundamental contents of an ideology are following:
1. Common Religion
2. Common Culture
3. Common Causes
4. Sincere Dedication and Pledges
The most fundamental contents of an ideology is common religion because the effects of religion produce a certain way of thinking. The traditions and the social behaviour of all the individuals become same due to the teachings of religion. Thus religion constitutes a collection of certain thoughts which later appears in the form of an ideology.
The second important contents of an ideology are the common culture. The way of life of the people belonging to a certain region or geographical environment has some special values on the basis of common religion; the way of life constitutes the social life in the form of a civilized culture. Thus some particular traditions become the part of the lives of the people then these remain alive in the form of ideology.
The third important contents of an ideology are the Common Causes of an Ideology. The people belonging to a certain religion or geographical environment constitute common social and economical causes for the solution of their problems, due to this their social behavior becomes same in this respect, and hence an ideology is formed among them. For example the achievement of Pakistan was a common cause under the influence of ideology.
Sincere Dedication and Pledges
The pledges and sincere dedication are also necessary for an ideology because an ideology becomes successful only when all the people accept it completely. Thus a dedication is developed with the ideology, hence the power of the ideology increases. For example the Muslims of South Asia are highly dedicated to their common causes for seeking freedom and establishment of a Muslim State.
QUESTION NO. 04
IDEOLOGY AND NATIONAL CHARACTER
Character is the sum of total habits, attitudes and the way of living an individual. The character of a person is influenced by the ideology. Thus if an ideology produces the uniformity of thoughts, then the habits, traditions and way of life of the whole nation become same which is collectively known as national character. There is a great importance of national character in success and stability of an ideology. The national character is formed from the following moral and ethical values in the light of an ideology.
1. Firm Faith
3. Honesty and Probity
5. Labour and Hard work
6. National Interest
1. Firm Faith
It is necessary that one should make firm faith on ideology for the determination of national character. This gives help to a person in the selection of a way for action. The firm faith of the Muslim of South Asia on Pakistan Ideology helped them to achieve Pakistan for them.
A uniformity of thoughts and actions should be developed among all the members of a nation. They should devote themselves with the sense of great spirit and duty.
3. Honesty and Probity
These qualities make a person practical and the practical persons can extend an ideology practically. An individual should lea a just life and reflect honesty in words and deeds. Islam has emphasized upon honesty and probity in very strong words.
An expression of the love and sacrifice for country is called patriotism. Patriotism gives stability to an ideology. It also establishes the national character. For instance, Pakistanis showed a gret spirit of patriotism during the war against India in 1965. It was the expression of their national character.
5. Labour and Hard work
The spirit o labour and hard work is a symbol of national character. It becomes the identity of the nations in the world. The secret of the success of nations is hidden in the labour and hard work.
6. National Interest
The collective objectives which help in progressing a country and nation are called national interest. It is necessary for an individual to reflect the supremacy of national interest with his personal character. Only those nations survive whose individuals not compromise on the national interest.
QUESTION NO. 05
Definition of Democracy
“Type of government in which, the representatives for the government are selected by the votes of common people and all the members of the state take part directly or indirectly in the formation of the government is called Democracy.”
Principles of Democracy in Islam
Islam has a different concept of Democracy from the rest of the world. Under Islamic democracy, the states of affairs are run according to the teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah. The foundation of democracy in Islam has been established on the basis of following principles:
Under Islamic democracy, the sovereignty belongs ot Almighty Allah. God fearing persons to run the affairs of the state are desirable to elect as the premiers of the state. The government as well as the legislative assemblies does not enjoy the unlimited powers. However the people are at liberty to elect.
The literal meaning of justice is to keep the rights things at their right places. It is the foundation of divine law. No aspect of life can be complete without justice. It is the justice which makes any society peaceful and prosperous. The individual and collective lives are made effective due to the establishment of justice.
Equality means all the persons are treated under the same principles of the state. Islam rejects all kinds of discrimination on the basis of languages, caste, colour, culture, wealth or poverty. The Holy prophet (P.B.U.H) in his last pilgrimage declared that all human beings are the off-springs of Hazrat Adam. No Arab has any precedence over a Non-Arab and vice versa.
Fraternity means brotherhood. Allah has told in the Holy Quran that all the believers are brothers to each other. The principles of fraternity are an important aspect of Islamic society. As brothers all the Muslims share the problems of each other and their happiness also. Our holy prophet (P.B.U.H) said that a Muslim is a brother to another. Mutual co-operation is developed due to the establishment of fraternity in the society.
Tolerance means is the power of endurance and to accept the criticism of the others merrily. Tolerance makes the mutual relations of human beings strong. The holy prophet (P.B.U.H) preached tolerance through his words and deeds. Tolerance gives an ability to every person to neglect the mistakes of the others thus the possibilities of quarreling with each other are discriminated and a state of peace is developed in the society.
QUESTION NO. 06
IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN IN THE LIGHT OF QUAID-E-AZAM'S SAYINGS
Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah gave practical shape to the ideology given by Allama Iqbal.
After joining Muslim League in 1913, he continued with his efforts to bring about Hindu Muslim unity but he was greatly disappointed to see the prejudicial attitude of the Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims. Following are some extracts from the speeches and statements which he delivered from time to time for explaining the ideology of Pakistan.
Address At Second Round Table Conference in 1931
Quaid-e-Azam believed that Congress and Hindus would never recognize the rights of Muslims. He declared while representing the Muslims in the second Round Table Conference in 1913:
“The Hindu Muslim dispute must be settled before the enforcement of any system or constitution. Until you do not give guarantee for the safeguard of the Muslim interests, until you do not win their (Muslims) co-operations, any constitution you enforece shall not last for even 24 hours.”
Quaid-e-Azam and Two Nation Theory
Quaid-e-Azam was a firm advocate of two nation theory which became the ideological basis of Pakistan. He said:
“The Muslims are a nation by every right to establish their separate homeland. They can adopt any means to promote and protect their economic social, political and cultural interests.”
On 23rd March, 1940 at the historic session of the Muslim League at Lahore, he said:
“The Mussalmans are not a minority. They are a nation by any definition. By all canons of International law we are a nation.”
In his presidential address at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore in 1940. He said:
“India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a Sub Continent of nationalities. Hindus and Muslims being the two major nations. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor inter dine and they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspects on life and of are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history.”
On March 8, 1944 while addressing the students of Muslim University, he said:
“Hindus and Muslims through living in the same town and villages had never been blended into one nation. They were always two separate entities.”
Quaid-e-Azam and Millat-e-Islamia
He believed that only Islam was the unifying force of the Muslim Millat. He said:
“What relationships knits the Muslims into one whole, which is the formidable rock on which the Muslim edifice has been erected, which is the sheet anchor providing base to the Muslim Millat, the relationship, the sheet anchor and the rock is Holy Quran.”
Address At Islamia College Peshawar
In 1946, at Islamia College Quaid-e-Azam declared:
“We do not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we want a laboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles.”
Address on 18th June 1945
In his message to the Frontier Muslim Students Federation, he said:
“Pakistan not only means freedom and independence but Muslim ideology, which has to be preserved which came to us as a precious gift and treasure and which we hope, other will share with us.”
The above sayings and statements largely prove that Quaid-e-Azam wanted to establish an Islamic system as a code of life because he believed that it was the sole objective of the Pakistan Movement.
QUESTION NO. 07
IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN
Pakistan is an ideological state and the ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic Ideology. Its basic principles being:
“The only Sovereign is Allah.”
Ideology of Pakistan basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the faith and creed based on the Islamic principles. Quaid-e-Azam once said:
“Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam.”
From the above statement, it is clear that ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic one.
Two Nation Concepts
The fundamental concept of ideology is that Muslims should get a separate identity. They should have a separate state where they could live according to Islamic rules and principle. On one occasion Quaid-e-Azam said:
“The Muslims demand Pakistan where they can rule in accordance with their own system of life, their culture development, their traditions and Islamic laws.”
Thus, this fundamental concept of ideology led to the concept of two nations in the Sub Continent and resulted in the formation of Pakistan.
Factors Creating the Idea of Separate Homeland
Factors creating the idea of a separate homeland were as follows:
1. Anti Muslim Campaign
The Hindus and British joined hands to destroy the faith, belief, customs and national importance of Muslims because Muslim rebellion was creating much problem for both.
2. In Acceptance of British Rule
Muslims had been ruling the Sub-Continent for ages. Therefore, they could not resist any power over them. When British came to rule the Sub Continent, Muslims were the only nation who opposed them. Thus, in order to gain power, British had to crush the Muslims collectively.
3. Hindus Betrayed Muslims
In the beginning, Hindus appeared to be on Muslim’s side, but later on their hostility was exposed as they opposed various steps taken by British Government which purely benefited Muslims.
4. Refusal of Muslim Identity
British wanted to implement parliamentary system in Sub-Continent in which the majority was the power and authority. due to Hindu majority it was probable that if British left India undivided, it would fall under the Hindus Rule. Further more, Hindus did not accept the separate identity of Muslims and thus, there were no chances of freedom even after the British rule.
5. War of 1857
In 1857, Muslims and Hindus tried to expel the British out of India but failed. Later due to Hindu conspiracies, Muslims were held responsible for it and hence were crushed further by British.
6. Sir Syed’s Idea
Sir Syed for the first time put down the idea that Muslims are a separate nation. He convinced Muslims to unite themselves in order to have a separate social and political identity.
Basic Points of Ideology of Pakistan
Muslims are different from Hindus in every aspect, their culture, civilization, customs and religion all are entirely different.
The Muslims need a free state for protection of their separate where they can live in accordance with their faith, belief and follow the Islamic codes.
Importance of Ideology in National Life
Ideology is a motivating force for a nation, which is striving hard to bring stability and homogeneity to its nation hood. It provides the binding force to the scattered groups in a society and brings them close to each other on a common platform. Ideologies impel their adherence to follow a joint linked action for the accomplishment of their goal. Ideologies give shape to the revolutions and create new cultures and civilizations. They stress on their adherents to insist on the realization of their ideal through total transformation of society.
An urgent agreement with each other on the ideals is most vital pre-requisite of an ideology.
The fundamental concept of the ideology of Pakistan is that Muslims are a separate nation having their own culture, literature, religion and way of life. They cannot be merged in any other nation. They should be able to develop their culture and religious traditions in an Islamic State and they should be able to create a true Islamic society for themselves.
Thus the ideology of Pakistan which developed through the period of Mohammad Bin Qasim and others and followed by political leaders like Quaid-e-Azam was materialized in 1947.