Friday, June 24, 2011

Class X, PHYSICS, "Electricity"


1. Insulators

Those material objects that do not allow charge to pass through them are known as Insulators or non-conductors.

2. Conductors

Those material objects that allow the charge to pass through them are called conductors.

3. Semi Conductors

Those material objects that allow some charge to pass through them are called Semi-Conductors.

4. Free Electron

Those electrons that are loosely bound by their atom and can move freely within the material are called free electrons.

5. Dielectric

The medium or space (vacuum) between two charges is said to be dielectric.

6. Force of Attraction

When two charges attract each other the force is called force of attraction. It has a negative sign.

7. Force of Repulsion

When two charges repel each other the force is called force of repulsion. It has a positive sign.

8. Equivalent Resistance

The relative resistance that has equal value to the combined value of a resistor of a circuit is called equivalent resistance. It is denoted by R(E).

9. Direct Current

Such a current that does not change its direction is known as direct current. It is denoted by DC, which is obtained from primary and secondary cells.

10. Alternating Current

Such a current that reverses its direction with a constant frequency from positive to negative and negative to positive direction is known as Alternating Current, obtained by generators. It is denoted by AC.

11. Conventional Current

An electric current considered to flow from points at positive terminal potential to points at negative potential.

12. Primary Cell

A voltaic cell in which the chemical reaction that produces the e.m.f is not reversible is known as Primary Cell.

13. Secondary Cell

An electric cell that can be changed by passing an electric current through it is called Secondary Cell. The chemical reaction in this case is reversible.

14. Fused Plug

It is a wired plug, which has its own cartilage fuse. It is used in a ring main circuit.

15. Electric Circuit

A combination of electrical components that form a conducting path is called an electric circuit.

16. Commercial Unit of Energy (kWh)

1 kWh is the energy produced by a resistor or conductor in 1 hour when it uses 1000 Watt power.

17. Watt

If 1 joule of electrical work is done in 1 second then the power is called 1 watt.

Electrostatic Induction

When a charged body brought close to another uncharged body then other body gains some chrge without any touch. This is called electrostatic induction.

Gold Leaf Electroscope

An electroscope is a device that can be used for detection of charge.


It consists of a glass case that contains two turn leaves of gold (Au) which are capable to diverge. The leaves are connected to a conductor to a metal ball or disk out side the case, but are insulated from the case itself.


If a charged object is brought close to the ball, a separation of charge is induced between the ball and gold leaves. The two leaves become charged and repel each other. If the ball is charged by touching the charged object the whole assembly of ball and leaves acquires the same charge. In either case greater the amount of charge greater would be the diverging in lens.

Electrostatic Potential

A charged body place in electrostatic field as an electrostatic potential as earth has its gravitational potential.

Potential Difference


“The difference in electrostatic potential between two points in an electrostatic field is called potential difference.”

When a unit positive charge body moves against an electrical field from A to B, then work done has been stored as potential difference. Therefore, we say that

“Potential difference is work done or energy stored per unit charge.”



Potential Difference = Work Done/Charge
V = W/q
Therefore, its unit is:
V = Joules/Coulomb = J/C = Volt.


1 volt potential difference is equal to one joule work done on 1 coulomb charge.


It is a device for string electric charge. It is a system of two (or more) plates on which we can store electric charge.

Parallel Plate Capacitor

It is a simple capacitor with two parallel plates on which we store the electric charge.


A parallel plate capacitor has two metallic plates with their stands and a dielectric which is air or some insulator. E.g. wax paper, wax, oil and mica.


When the plates of a capacitor are connected to a voltage source. The electrons flow from a plate A to the positive charged terminal and B plate to negative terminal. Thus plate A acquires -q charge. Due to attraction voltage on plates increases gradually. Then charging stops when the potential difference (voltage) becomes the voltage of source.

Capacity or Capacitance

It is the ability of capacitor to store the charge. Charge stored per unit voltage is called capacitance.


The unit of capacitance is Farad = coulomb/volt.


If 1 coulomb charge charge produces a potential difference of 1 volt then capacitance is equal to 1 Farad.


Capacitance of a capacitor depends upon the following factors:

* Area of Plates
* Nature of dielectric
* Distance between plates
* Nature of metal plates
* Temperature of Dielectric and Plates

Electromotive Force (e.m.f)

A measure of the energy supplied by a source of electric current. It is equal to the energy supplied by the source to each unit of charge.
e.m.f = Energy Supplied / Charge


The unit of e.m.f is volt.

Electric Current

“The rate of flow of charge is called electric current.”

Mathematical Form

According to the definition:
Electric Current = Charge /time
I = q/t


The unit of current is Ampere (A) = coulomb/sec


When one coulomb charge passing through a conductor in one second the current is said to be 1 Ampere.



“The ratio of the potential difference across an electrical element to the current in it is called resistance.”

Resistance measures the opposition of the conductor to the flow of charge.


The unit of resistance is Ohm.

Factors on which Resistance Depends

Resistance Depends upon the following factors:

* Area of Cross Section of a Conductor: Resistance increases when area of cross section increases.
* Length of Conductor: Resistance increases when the length of conductor is increased.
* Temperature: Resistance in metallic substances is directly proportional to temperature and in non-metals is inversely proportional to the temperature.
* Nature of Substance: Resistance also depends upon the nature of the conductor or substance.

Ohm’s Law


The current passing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the end points of the conductor.

Mathematical Form

According to this law:
V < I (< represents the sign of proportionality. Do not write this in your examination paper) => V = IR
Where R is a constant is called the resistance of the conductor.


The body or thing that offers resistance in an electrical circuit is known as resistor. The appliance or device that works on the presence of electric current is known as resistor.

Combination of Resistors

1. In Series

When resistors are combined in series, they have the following properties:

* Current passes through all resistors has equal value, i.e. I = I1 = I2
* Voltage is different according to the resistance.
* Total voltage is equal to the combined voltage or the sum of the voltages of all resistors, i.e. V = V1 + V2 + V3
* Total resistance is equal to the sum of all the resistances, i.e. RE = R1 + R2 + R3


As show in the above diagram and according to the properties of combination.
V + V1 + V2 + V3
but V = IR and V1=IR1, V2=IR2 and V3 = IR3, therefore:
IR(E) = IR1 + IR2 + IR3
IR(E) = I (R1 + R2 + R3)
R(E) = R1 + R2 + R3

2. In Parallel

When resistors are combined in parallel then this combination has the following properties:

* Current has different ways to pass through.
* Current has different value in each resistor according to its resistance.
* Total current is equal to the algebraic sum of each current, i.e.e I = I1 + I2 + I3
* Potential difference (Voltage) is same across each resistor, i.e. V = V1 = V2 = V3
* Resistance is small or less than all combined resistance.
* Total resistance is given by the formula 1/R(E) = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3


By the help of properties of parallel combination:
I = I1 + I2 + I3
According to Ohm’s Law, V = IR and I = V/R then we say that:
V/R(E) = V/R1 + V/R2 + V/R3
=> V/R(E) = V (1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3)
1/R(E) = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3

Difference between AC and DC

Alternating Current

1. AC is obtained by a resistor that is connected in series with a source of alternating current.
2. Its direction continuously changes.
3. It is obtained by a generator.
4. Its transportation from one point to another point is very easy.
5. It has a frequency about 40 Hz to 60 Hz.
6. No voltage drop takes place in the time of transportation.
7. It is not too dangerous.
8. It is cheaper than DC.
9. It changes very high to low or vice versa.
10. It changes its direction continuously as +y and -y.

Direct Current

1. DC is obtained by connecting the two ends of a conductor to the terminals of a batter.
2. Its direction remains unchanged.
3. It is obtained by a chemical reaction.
4. Its transportation is very difficult.
5. It has no frequency.
6. Great voltage drop takes place in the time of transportation.
7. It is too dangerous.
8. It is expensive.
9. It cannot change easily.
10. It has no direction.

Joule’s Law


The heat produced by an electric current I, passing through a conductor of resistance R for time t is equal to I2RT. (2 represents power).
The heat produced per unit time in a given conductor is proportional to the square of the current.


According to this law:
W < I2t (Here 2 represents the square of current) => W = I2Rt(Here 2 represents the square of current)


The rate of doing work is called Power.

Mathematical Form

P= W/T
=> P = I2Rt/t
=> P = I2R

Substituting the value of I from Ohm’s law in the above equation:

=> P = {V2/R2} R
=> P = V2/R
=> P = V2/V/I
=> P= VI

Difference between Resistance and Conductance


1. Resistance is the measure of opposition by the conductor to the flow of charge.
2. It is the reciprocal of the conductance and is measured in volt per ampere or ohm.


1. Conductance of a wire is the ease with which current flows in it.
2. It is the ratio of current and potential difference. Its unit is ampere per volt or seimens.


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