Thursday, July 19, 2012

Class XI, Principles of Commerce, "Labour Saving Devices"

INTRODUCTION There was a time when business used to be small and the total number of employees used to be quite a few. The office appliances were regarded merely as luxury. With the expansion of business, there has been a great development in the use of office appliances and labor saving devices, which have been introduced to save time and manpower. These machines can do the job more speedily, accurately and at lower cost. In fact, they have become a necessity for smooth and efficient working of the office. Labor saving devices can be classified into the following three groups:
A. General Machines
B. Communication Machines
C. Accounting Machines
It is a common machine and is used in each and every office, as time and labor saving devices. Through this machine, many letters and documents can be typed with speed and neatness. It can prepare more copies in no time. As the industry advanced and requirements increased the improvement in typewriting machines have also been made. Noiseless typewriters are used where typists work near executives and other clerks as noise is likely to cause disturbance. Electric power is also used for operating typewriters. Electric machines require less human exercise and can type more copies than the ordinary machines of typewriter. This is more liked by a typist as he gets less tired and maintains his output better than he does by an ordinary machine. Electric typewriters are more expensive and cannot be used in small offices.
There are a number of dictating machines but they are all based on same principles on which the gramophone works. These machines record the dictation given by the office executive who can be transcribed by the audio typists and thus, the presence of stenographer is not necessary. These machines however, usually consist of three machines the actual dictating machine, the transcriber and the shaver. The first is used by the person for dictating. The second on e is used by the typist an the third machine is used fo9r shaving of the dictated matter. This machine is most useful for secretaries, partners, managers and others who rare subject to frequent interruption. With special attachment, the dictating machine can be connected so as to record telephone, messages and by the use of microphones, it can also be used for recording speeches.
When 100 of copies are required the duplicating machines are used. Each class of machine has its advantages and in selecting a machine for use in particular office, these advantages should be be Given consideration. A variety of duplicators are in use nowadays and few of them are given below;
These duplicators can reproduce typewriting, hand-writing or drawings in a variety of colors. A master copy is prepared on a sheet or art paper by means of hectograph carbon paper. This is the only type of machine which can reproduce in several colors in one run. According to the quality of paper and carbon paper used, 100 to 250 copies can be made.
These duplicators can reproduce type writing .the stencil is out either on typewriting or by writing or drawing with a special pen. Up to 4,000 copies can be obtained and stencils can be stored and re –used if carefully handled and protected.
These duplicators can re-produce typewriting, hand writing and drawing. As in the case of stencil, different colors can be reproduced on the finished copy. Up to 50,000 copies can be obtained from the machine.
These machines are in fact, small printing press of letter press type. It is a sloe method and it also requires some skills to do job. Up to 500,000 copies may be printed.
This machine is bit different from the duplicators .these machines are generally used for addressing the envelope to the regular clients or for the preparations of labels. These machines are adaptable enough to take the wide variety of other work in the office .These machine are operated by electric power.
In this machine, addresses are embossed on metal plates or are stenciled on specially prepared fiber material. These plates are placed alphabetically or in any other manner. When the actual addressing work is t be done, these plate are placed and passed through the machine, and the address are printed on the envelopes.
The work of the cash department can be helped considerably by machines for handling coins. There are machine for sorting out coins of different denominations from a mixed heap of coins and appliances are also available for counting them. There are also machines for giving change quickly. As no mental calculation is necessary, a great saving of time is affected by such a machine where the number of transactions is very large.
There are number of appliances which may be used to check automatically the receipts of cashiers. They are usually known as cash registers. Some of them also have arrangement for adding up the receipts so that at any time the machine shows the total cash that should be in be the cash drawer attached to the machine. Some are also so constructed as to issue the receipts to customers while keeping the record for the office.
Franking machine saves a good deal of time in scaling the letters and in getting ready for the mail. This machine makes an impression on the envelopes showing in red ink the amount of the postage and the place of origin and date of posting. No postal stamps need to be used. The machine have matters attached to them and they are locked and sealed by the postal authorities to frank up the amount after which the machine gets automatically locked. Some of these machines also have an automatic envelope scaling device. Some business houses have the stamps affixing machine which are fed with postage stamps, and there are devices to cut the stamps off, to moisten and affix them and to count them.
These machine records the time of arrival and departure of the employees of he office. These type of machine is used in the office where payment are made on the basis of time spent on the job. This machine is like a clock and when the employee enters the office he cuts card in the machine which prints the time. Similarly when he goes out, further he cuts the card in the machine and departure time is printed on the card.
The use of telephone is so common and all its importance is so well known that it does not need further explanation. It is maintained by high business houses internally and externally. Internal system enables the executives of same organization to talk to each other on telephone whenever they need so. External systems enables them to talk outside parties. Every city is linked by telephone system so that through trunk call any one may have talk anywhere in the country with the required person.
It is a system which link by telephone mobile vehicles in city or may be in an area. This system is in advance countries. Under this system mobile units such as cars, vans, etc can control each other on radio-telephony through the central station located in the city.
In big factories, shops and offices this system is a useful means to give instructions to all of the employees or only those particularly concerned with any special instruction. This system has an advantage of quick communication of message to the concerned persons but it has also the disadvantage of distributing all of the employees while instructions are concerned with any particulars employee.
After typewriter, adding machine in perhaps the most commonly used machine in office routine working. Adding machine is basis for all further calculations. These machines are of two type: listing and non-listing. These machines have following advantages:
1. Cross-casting is much further faster. Most clerks, unless they are very highly skilled, cannot add horizontally with the same speed as they can add vertically.
2. Selected items can be added from different documents or from scattered positions in one document.
3. Less skill and concentration are required by the clerk.
4. With the aid of adding machines, junior clerks can add with speed and accuracy equal to or exceeding that of a skilled clerk.
In a large business there is a lot of calculation work, in order to asses the position. In calculation various forms such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are involved. There is likelihood of accounting mistakes, and takes more time in corrections. Keeping in view both the important factors time as well as accuracy nowadays the calculation work is carried on through calculation machines. With the help of calculating machines addition, subtraction, multiplication or division can easily be made with accuracy and without loss of time. Apart form this with the help of said machine the problems of exchange, discount etc. can be solved with great accuracy. It does not require any special training to operate the machine, the mistakes can only occur when the machine in question is not properly handled or when out of order.
Posting means the transfer of amounts from original entries to the appropriate ledger accounts. Accuracy of entries and easy to read are the most important requirements of this function. These machines play an important role in maintaining the accuracy.
The computers operate at the fastest speed which ever is thinkable by human mind, because these machines do not depend on mechanical movements but on electronic pulses with duration of about one millionth of a second. Computers are able to perform the following functions:-
1. Receive a programme of orders representing the routing to be carried out, store this and refer to it as may be required.
2. Take in original information through one or more input channels and store it for reference as required by the programme.
3. Perform any arithmetical calculation as and when required by the programme.
4. Store the result of any calculation for further reference and accumulate totals as required by the programme.
5. Select any information from the store, arrange it in any required sequence and discharge it through one or more output channels to be printed punched into cards or paper tape, or recorded on.
Apart from computer speed, the principal characteristic of electronic computers is their flexibility as would appear from the following:-
1. They can be made to carry out any electrical operation only by feeding in the appropriate orders.
2. They can proceed from one kind of operation to another automatically.
3. They can automatically select alternative courses of action according to the nature of the date received or the results of previous operation.

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