Circulatory SystemHUMAN HEART
Heart, the most powerful organ in the circulatory system is conical, hollow & muscular organ, situated in middle mediastinum.
POSITION OF HEART
Heart lies in the thoracic cavity between the lungs slightly towards left, enclosed with in ribcage with the sternum in front & vertebral column behind.
SIZE & WEIGHT
The heart measures about 3 ½ Inches & weighs about 300 gm in males & 250 gm in females.
MAIN FUNCTION OF HEART
Heart works continuously like a muscular pump & pumps the blood to various parts of the body to meet their nutritive requirements.
COVERING OF HEART PERICARDIUM
Heart is surrounded by a double layered pericarcdium. The outer layer is called Fibrous pericardium & inner layer is called as serous pericardium.
Fluid is secreted in b/w the two layers of pericardium which is known as pericardial fluid.
Pericardial fluid acts as LUBRICANT & reduces friction b/w heart walls & surrounding tissues during beating of heart.
STRUCTURE OF HEART
Human heart consists of four chambers.
CHAMBERS OF HEART
1. RIGHT ATRIUM
Right Atrium is the right upper chamber of heart & acts as thin walled low pressure pump.
OPENINGS (INLETS) OF RIGHT ATRIUM
1. Superior Vena Cava
2. Anfenior Vena Cava
3. Coronary Sinus
It receives venous blood from the whole body & pump it to the right ventricle through the right atrioventricular (tricuspid opening) valve.
2. LEFT ATRIUM
Left atrium is upper triangular chamber which is present posteriorly. It also acts as low pressure pump.
OPENINGS (INLETS) OF LEFT ATRIUM
Two pairs of pulmonary veins.
It receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through 4 pulmonary veins and pumps it to the left ventricle through the left atrioventricular orifice (mitral or bicuspid).
3. RIGHT VENTRICLE
Right ventricle is the right lower chamber of heart, which is triangular in shape.
OPENINGS OF RIGHT VENTRICLE
- Tricuspids valve
- Pulmonary Aorta through pulmonary valve.
- The wall of right ventricle is thinner than that of left ventricle in a ratio of 1:3
Cavity of right ventricle is broader than left because of thin muscular walls, and both of these features are due to the fact that right ventricle has to pump the blood into lungs only against low pressure system (i.e. pulmonary circulation).
Right ventricle receives deoxygenated blood from right Atrium and pumps it to the lungs through pulmonary aorta for oxygenation.
4. LEFT VENTRICLE
Left ventricle is the most thick walled chamber and forms the apex of heart.
OPENING OF LEFT VENTRICLE
- Bicuspid or Mitral valve
- Systemic Aorta through aortic valve.
The walls of left ventricle are 3 times thicker than those of right ventricle. Blood pressure is 6 times high.
SIZE OF CAVITY
The cavity of left ventricle is narrower than the right ventricle because of more muscular walls. It is due to the fact that left ventricle has to pump the blood to the entire body against high pressure system (Systemic Circulation).
It receives oxygenated blood from left atrium & pumps it into the aorta.
INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF VENTRLES
Interior of ventricles show two parts
1. Rough in flowing part
2. Smooth out flowing part
1. ROUGH PART
Inflowing part of each ventricle is rough due to presence of muscular ridges called as Trabeculae carneae.
2. SMOOTH PART
Out flowing part of each ventricle is smooth which gives origin to pulmonary trunk in right ventricle & Ascending Aorta in left ventricle.
Papillary muscles are the type of Trabeculae carneae being attached by their bases to ventricular walls, & their apices are connected to, the cusps of valves through chorda tendinae.
These are delicate fibrous chords, which connect the papillary muscles to the cusps of Atriovertritcular valves.
Chorda Tendinae don’t left the valves open back into the atria when the ventricles contract.
SEPTUM OF HEART
1. INTERATRIAL SEPTUM
Internally, the right & left atria are separated by a vertical membranous septum called as Interatrial septum.
2. INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM:
The right & left verticals are also separated by a thick muscular septum called as Interventricular septum.
3. ATRIOVENTRICULAR SEPTUM
Atria lie above & behind the ventricles & are separated from ventricles by Atrioven-tricular septum.
Heart possesses two types of valves, which regulate the flow of blood with in the heart.
TYPES OF HEART VALVES
1. Atrioventricular valves -> Bicuspid, Tricuspid
2. Semilunar vlaves -> Aortic valve, Pulmonary valve
1. ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES
Valves, which are present in b/w the Atria & ventricles are called Atrioventricular valves.
TYPES OF ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES
They are of two types.
1. Bicuspid or Mitral
1. BICUSPID OR MITRAL VALVE
Blood flows from left Atrium to the left ventricle through left atrioventricular on orifice, which is guarded by bicuspid or Mitral valves.
It has tow (2) cusps so it is called as bicuspid.
Blood flows from right Atrium to the Right ventricle through right Atrioventricular orifice, which is guarded by Tricuspid.
It has 3 cusps so it is called as TRICUSPID.
2. SEMILUNAR VALVES
This is the second category of heart valves, which guard the emergence of pulmonary & systemic Aorta.
TYPES OF SEMILUNAR VALVES
It has Two Types:
1. Aortic Valve
2. Pulmonary Valve
1. AORTIC VALVE
This valve guards the Aortic orifice in left ventricle
It consists of 3 Semilunar cusps.
2. PULMONARY VALVE
This valve guards the pulmonary orifice in right ventricle.
It also consists of 3 semi lunar cusps.
FUNCTIONS OF VALVES
Heart valves maintain unidirectional flow of the blood & prevents its regurgitation in the opposite direction.